ࡱ> <9:;}"( / 0DArialngsRomanll`ׯ0DTimes New Romanll`ׯ0 DWingdingsRomanll`ׯ0 A .  @n?" dd@  @@`` x C%..**  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@AB 0AA@83<^ ʚ;I!ʚ;g4+d+d` ׯ0ppp@ <4dddd8vS0l` 80___PPT10 O  =NUsing Family Style as a Tool in Transition of Hispanic Youth with DisabilitiesOO0]Christine B. Anderson, MRC, CRC, PhD Candidate Julie F. Smart, PhD, CRC Utah State University^^ Transition@Transition involves: Developmental stage Employment Independence ,A" TransitionCulture and family influences transition process Goals for independence Goals for normalization Family and community involvement School system and professional involvement1"{ TransitionLegal definition Definitions and mandates from two different systems Special Education Vocational Rehabilitation Entitlement vs. Eligibility Complex bureaucracy R|"|""  TransitionSelf determination Requires cultural capital Western definition and expectations Transition difficult for families and may be enhanced for Hispanic youth Culturally defined Professional assumptions of normalizationRm="m"=  Legal disadvantages are simply institutionalized expressions of cultural norms Complex bureaucracies require a great deal of cultural capital Solution: Use family style particularly in Hispanic families as a resource Proceed with caution Stereotypes - overgeneralization*w"w"Family SystemsFamily participation influences the transition process Review of Family Styles: Egocentric/Individualistic Enmeshed Group and Community Collective Family System/Social Orientation (7f Family StyleEgocentric/Individualistic Emphasis on individualism Equality Families often characterized as nuclear families Identity development Choice Self determination&  Family StyleEnmeshed Fluid boundaries Family cohesion based on open/closed boundaries Family role in conflict resolution Professional views may be misinterpreted Incorrect assumptions of professionals that family style is dysfunctional&    Family StyleGroup and Community Community identity Individual de-emphasized Accomplishments and Limitations reflect on community When individual considered  birth order, gender Social equality Status achieved through educational attainment or occupational choice&  Family StyleuProfessionals who misinterpret this family style may alienate families rather than enhance collaboration Collective Family System/Social Orientation Close knit social orientation Hierarchical interdependence Cooperation Relationship of family members Responsibility and obligations to one another Interconnectedness of community Family priorities over individual priorities* uCounselors who must work within legislative parameters for service delivery may be viewed as culturally insensitive.   Legislation is the cultural expression of society and governing values thus it is safe to state that Rehabilitation and Special Education law is based on the egocentric view of the family. Families that do not endorse the egocentric view of the family may experience conflict in negotiating a system that does not validate other family systems. These issues can be compounded when considering CLD families. Implications for PracticeCaution in assuming families ascribe to Western culture values Through counseling process  identify goals Cultural reciprocity  individual family perspectives versus universal beliefs Identify values embedded in recommendations Determine whether individual/family shares assumptions Acknowledge different perspectives Discussion for recommendations < Implications for PracticeGProvide culturally relevant services Ensure transition services culturally sensitive Ethical responsibility Recognize family style as strength Family involvement Role of extended family Service utilization and procurement Build on cultural strengths for transition process Recognize support needed in order to understand systemtUZZ6Z<ZjZU6<jImplications for PracticeCollaboration of families and professionals Build trust Develop community based interventions Network with other service providers to support and involve families in process Outreach efforts  accessible format6, ,  hCounselor consideration of family systems may increase understanding of Hispanic youth transition goals /    ! 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S  6݁ _P   P*    6P _   R*  H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.9b@00  0(  x  c $`[|  x  c $\| p   H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10./aC$ 0 $(  r  S `x `  ` r  S ,`x ` ` H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.bp_$ 0  $(  r  S x `   r  S dx `  H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.>aЫ8$ 0 `$(  r  S 4 x `   r  S x0 `  H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.7b0& 0 P(  r  S `xP ` ` H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.5b v.$  0 0$(  r  S x `  ` r  S  x `  H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.?a@b$  0 $(  r  S %x `   r  S X&x `  H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.@bЪh$  0 $(  r  S /x `   r  S 0x `  H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.Aby$  0 $(  r  S =x `   r  S >x `  H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.Ab'$ 0 $(  r  S `x `  ` r  S \`x0 ` ` H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.Ab@xG  0 0(P(    S 4x `  "p`PpH  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.FblJ 0 @(  r  S `x ` ` H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.Fbp}O($ 0 @$(  r  S `x `  ` r  S P`x ` ` H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.?aڷ$ 0 0$(  r  S =x `  = r  S ̩=x ` = H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.DbG]$ 0 $(  r  S =x `  = r  S ̒=x ` = H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.Hb0 0 `(  r  S `x ` ` H  0޽h ? 3_j80___PPT10.Fb@@z0 JB(  X  C    =B  S :m 0  = Western concepts of transition process include independence and self determination. Self determination involves developing the skills of self-motivation and self-regulation (Trainor, 2007; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Individuals are encouraged to make choices and decisions regarding their lives with the same freedom of choice as people without disabilities (Wehmeyer, 1995). Key components of self-determination that increase the likelihood of successful transition to adulthood include goal setting, making choices, self-evaluating, and self-advocating (Trainor, 2002). Anglo-cultures encourage the development of independence in children and parents provide opportunities to practice skills that enhance independence. Self- determination is also a critical skill to be developed in postsecondary education and employment settings. For example, postsecondary education institutions rely on students self advocacy skills to disclose, articulate strengths and limitations of the disability, identify needed support services, and request academic accommodations to access course content. CLD students may engage in the goals of self-determination according to their respective culture and the goals of independence may be culturally defined. The dominant culture group in the United States anticipates that independence involves financial and residential freedom. Parental involvement is encouraged but expected to decrease in order to allow youth to be more independent. Some youth may have a family system that values family interdependence versus independence. Part of self determination is advocating for self and having the right to question professionals. Individuals without the cultural capital might not know that professionals are expected to play a role but that the family can ask for the advice and choose whether or not to consider the advice of professionals or that the family and individual have a  say in what happens in the transition plan. Western definition and expectations The independence idea that youth want to move away from home, leave family and establish residential and financial independence. We as professionals need to be careful in our assumptions. We cannot assume that development outcomes (residential independence) or the role a youth plays in the family, or the goal for parenting and when it will occur, and independence is all universal. Assumptions cannot be made that  our view as a counselor is the best view for the youth and family. Consideration should be given to the Western culture view of work as part of adult development. Work provides independence and ability to support oneself. Adults are expected to work. Within this framework, people with disabilities must have jobs in order to be normalized (Kalyanpur, ). Individuals and families who deviate from the Western cultural are perceived as uninvolved, noncompliant, and incapable of contribution. Transition difficult for families  separation and independence culturally defined, professional assumptions of normalization     w   4 y ! ] b H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.9b}  0 ,(  X  C    m  S  0  m .&Counselors need to exercise caution that all families ascribe to Western cultural values. As we ve discussed the system is reflective of White middle class. Now the counseling process is quite congruent with the concept of cultural reciprocity. Cultural reciprocity involves a process of counselor personal awareness of one s own cultural values, goals, and I might add family style to help establish open, respectful interactions with families in the transition process. It helps establish open, respectful interactions with families. Thus an integral part of the counseling process to identify the individual s goals. Through cultural reciprocity, professionals can be more reflective in practice and develop and understanding of varying perspectives. 1)Identify values embedded in recommendations made. Every practice and perspective is influenced by one s belief system which at times are so ingrained that we may not even be able to detect. Need to see that our perspective is only part of many perspectives. 2)Whether individual or family shares the assumptions of the professional 3)Acknowledging differences in perspectives  professionals can validate culture and input of family and individual collaboration with mutual respect 4)Discussion for recommendations -ways to adapt professional recommendations to individual s family style Cultural reciprocity is more than just acknowledging differences but sharing in the decision making, progressing collaboratively with mutual respect and shared power between professionals, families and individuals in the transition process. To start adapting cultural reciprocity is to consider family style but with the cautions we ve discussed about universal application of family style, and stereotypes. Rehab counselors consider environment, community, and family influences. Cultural reciprocity can enhance the family s involvement and build a successful working relationship among families and professionals. ---------------------------- Moreover, by acknowledging differences, sharing the decision making, and progressing collaboratively with mutual respect, cultural reciprocity can result in shared power between parents and professionals (Kalyanpur & Harry, 1997; 1999). A general suggestion for improving cultural responsiveness is to educate oneself about the different cultures that one may encounter. Although this is a good step, it is not the only step to be taken. While culture-specific practices and values can be found, there is little consistency between all members of a particular group.  Variances between individuals exist just as variances between cultures (Combes & Durodoye, 2007). Professionals should keep in mind that generalizations to an individual or a family based on limited knowledge of race or ethnicity can lead to stereotyped beliefs and diminish one s capacity to work collaboratively (Kalyanpur & Harry, 1999; Wilson, 2002). Rather than making assumptions regarding an entire group, maintaining a posture of culture reciprocity can help professionals learn more about the individual consumer or family s values (Kalyanpur & Harry, 1999). Helms and Cook (1999) recommend balancing common characteristics of cultures and individual characteristics of the consumers. In transition services, the team has an additional consideration with respect to consumers. Through a family-centered approach, discrepancies between the student and family values may become apparent. In this case, the professionals should aim to understand how each set of values differ and how to accommodate all views expressed. It is of utmost importance that the needs of all consumers are met and cultural values are respected (Combes & Durodoye, ^   >  X    FH  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10., :H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.Cb@v 0 p(  X  C    =  S X6 0  = Providing culturally relevant services. Understanding the context of the individuals. Teaching self-determination (i.e., goal setting, choice making, self-evaluation, and self-advocacy), according to the consumer s and his or her family s notion of independence, can lead to increased access to adult services and appropriate accommodations. We have an ethical responsibility to ensure transition services are culturally sensitive. Thus why cultural reciprocity is applicable to the rehab counseling process. Individuals with whom we collaborate should have our same ethical ideals to provide culturally sensitive services. Although regulations encourage interagency collaboration, the mandates are very weak. Early and successful interagency collaboration that unifies the team s purpose, prepares appropriate vocational evaluations, allows for exchange of knowledge and expertise, and coordinates services can be especially helpful for CLD consumers. The wide array of services available to individuals with disabilities post high school requires the commitment of all team members to assist in navigating to toward available resources that ultimately affect successful transition outcomes. Lack of engagement with special educators and understanding of cultural definitions may lead to gaps in services for families or accessing rehabilitation services. Counselors need to develop partnerships with families and understand self-determination from a cultural perspective. If counselors are aware of issues Hispanic families bring to the process then counselors could inquire about these issues during the counseling session. Recognize the family as a strength in the process of transition: assist with stressful situations can assist in coping strategies. Too often Hispanic family style is pathologized or any system that deviates from the  norm Build on cultural strengths for the transition process  the family as a support. Indeed the literature validates the use of natural supports for individuals with disabilities. Individuals who have a group or collective family system have access to Natural supports already in the environment to assist with the transition and stress in beginning the process. An important aspect of the transition process is FAMILY.x& 4 ! 7 S a ?  6 n   H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.Gb0ʏ>0 :2(  X  C    2  S  0   Introduction: It is a pleasure to be with you this morning. A research interest of mine is transition. Particularly the collaboration of special education, VR and the impact on cultural linguistic diverse populations. In looking at the relationship of the number of CLD students in special education (a disproportionate amount) and the variances in service delivery for VR. Began to look at the process of transition for CLD students particularly Hispanic youth with disabilities. I began to think about how family style impacts the transition process. Families engage in the process of transition, however the relationship between cultural and family influences has not been considered. So for this presentation we ll take a look at the relationship between family styles and transition and the implications for practice in Rehabilitation Counseling. H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.Tk@0   P (  X  C    m   S 3< 0  m R  Culture and family influences the transition process The system is based on White, Middle Class values. It doesn t consider SES and a limited choice of work for individuals. Western White middle class youth have a longer childhood (decisions made for youth, stay at home longer and have higher social class and various opportunities afforded) Youth from cultures and families not idealized by the system. Families may have different goals for independence Goals for normalization Family and community involvement  community or religious obligations may require service before continuing education or making plans for economic independence. Other families may have the goal for marriage and may wish for transition goals to incorporate skills to establish in the home. Or the youth may have a family with a history of military service and this will impact transition goals. Families may have the view that the professional is only a support and not the authority . Specifically, the US is often preoccupied with self-reliance and independence when compared to other countries (Baer et al, 2004). Subsequently students are encouraged to develop independence and self-advocacy consistent with the cultural norm of the United States. These ideals have influenced the models for independent living, employment, and supported employment. Assumptions however, should not be made for all individuals to follow the mainstream ideals of individualism, choice, and equality of opportunity (Harry, Rueda, & Kalyanpur, 1999). Z ,  H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.Zk`t0 x(  X  C    mx  S \? 0  m Family participation does impact the transition process. Families provide social and instrumental support: acceptance, understanding, food, clothing, guidance for behavior and expectations. However as we ve discussed each family has specific goals for independence, work, school, and the future. Families are an important part of the transition process. Families can provide support for job sampling, promote educational plans, and encourage student participation in decision making. Thus we need to take a look at family styles for ALL families: We ll take a look at each: Egocentric/Individualistic, Enmeshed, Group and Community, Collective Family/Social Orientation A family may not necessarily endorse one particular style and may use several characteristics but often a family more often fits one Artificial categories as a learning tool. Families generally identify with one rather than all family style. We ll take a look at how these family styles encounter American law. I am here to introduce this discussion on family style in transition. Please note that All Four family systems are highly functional and adaptive! Have a tendency to pathologize Hispanic families or anything that deviates from the US White Middle Class norm ----------------- Hispanic families generally emphasize family connections and support. Indeed, extended families are close, women share in child rearing responsibilities, and nurture family members including those with disabilities (Royeen & Crabtree, 2006). Family style impacts the transition process considering the family involvement in education and vocational choice. Therefore, the relationship between family styles, transition, and Hispanic individuals should be considered. Examination of beliefs, attitudes and other practices related to a specific culture or religion should be considered as to what might be compatible with transition interventions (Blacher, 2001). Hispanic family style has been characterized as a collective family system where the family is central to entertainment, network of support from parents and extended family, respect for education including teachers and counselors, as well as a traditional cultural norm of hierarchy and family obligation. Communication of Hispanic individuals and families tends to comprise facial expressions, use of gestures, touch, indirect communication, and individuals often appear more formal, and follow tradition to offer more stability and consistency (Royeen & Crabtree, 2006).  P  >.H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.akP/.0 (  X  C      S D 0   {For this family style of Individualistic/ Egocentric the family orientation places strong emphasis on individualism and equality. Families who are characterized by this are more likely to be characterized as nuclear families (Kalyanpur & Harry, ). Each member of the family develops his/her own identity in addition to the family identity. So individual can gain identity from the family but is also encouraged to have own identity and relationship aside from the family. Encouragement is given to make individual choices and act upon goals and aspirations for education and vocation. Certainly, independence and self-reliance is stressed as the ideal and value of social status. What does this sound like? Would this family style work impose difficulty in the transition process? Generally not since independence and choice are emphasized and seems to fit the Transition system. H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.bk &o@ 0 P(  X  C      S t  0   REnmeshed Family system Enmeshed family style is characterized by fluid role boundaries. Where children may be expected to assist with child rearing duties or help in the care of a grandparent. Roles may also be fluid in that members may have responsibility to assist in the financial aspects of family life Family cohesion is established by the level of open or closed boundaries (Kalyanpur &Harry). Interactions within the family vary from the interactions with individuals not part of the family unit. Challenges incurred are resolved within the immediate and extended family and family bonding and cohesion is viewed as a strength and may not be understood by nonfamily members. As a result, well intentioned professionals may be viewed as intruders in the process. Some families may resent the persistence of suggestions and problem solving (Kalyanpur & Harry, ). Conversely professionals may perceive the fluid family roles as a limitation rather than a strength. I do want to say that I am disappointed with the term enmeshed for this family style as the term has pathological connotations. We need a better term for this family style Often anything that deviates from the typical or American Western norm is pathologized. >  l H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.dk4NE 0 U(  X  C      S Dm 0   WGroup family style emphasizes the community identity. Specifically that accomplishments and limitations of an individual reflect upon the community as a whole and as such individuality is de-emphasized. When individual status is considered, it is based upon birth-order or gender (Kalyanpur & Harry). This social equality provides opportunity for status through educational attainment and occupational choice. Have any of you experienced this family style in your practice as a rehabilitation counselor?^ H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.ekF)0 9(  X  C      S |m 0   ;'Given the information of transition from a Western, Middle class orientation. It is interesting to consider that perhaps it is not so much the counselor who may be at fault in delivery cultural sensitive services but ACTUALLY the system itself given that systems reflect the dominant culture. H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.fkOy  0 0(  X  C      S  0   2Again it may not actually be the counselor but the system HOWEVER& & & & .. That s not to say that it is an excuse for counselors. On the contrary counselors need to find ways to work within the parameters of the law and ways to act according to the ethical code for CRC to provide culturally sensitive services. Counselors need to start to understand will take more expertise to understand family style in transition service delivery. Thus as a way to work within the parameters of an inherently biased system FAMILY Style can be a resource in the process. It is a starting point to view the issues that are part of the transition process. Because the way transition process is set now :Transition assumes absence of racism, acculturative stress, and handicapism. H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.gkW J 0   0 (  X  C    m   S P 0  m 2  An important part of the counseling process is establishing trust with our clients. It is no different for CLD families and particuarly Hispanic youth with disabilities. Engaging in aspects of cultural reciprocity can help establish trust. Validates their role and context and the counselor as a support in the transition process. Community based interventions  draw on strengths of the community in transition goals  jobs utilizing the natural supports of the community, assisting in accessing transportation Network with service providers to support and involve families Outreach efforts- May I share a story with you. I was asked to participate & .took particular care to have a translator available for the powerpoint slides, as well as available for communication. In the past our state office had information in Spanish I made that assumption& When I arrived to pick up the brochures I was told it was decided to discontinue the Spanish brochures as spanish speaking counselors were already in the offices. Astute colleague noted that why print at all since the offices had counselors who spoke English. The nature of the statement shows no one would say this about the dominant culture but freely about other cultures.    >} H  H  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.lkb+0 & (  X  C    m  S  0  m ^Ultimately, counselor consideration of family systems may increase understanding of Hispanic youth transition goals. What do you think about the information I have presented? It would be helpful to consider your own cultural orientation and assumptions. Find ways to change assumptions and avoid imposing our cultural assumptions on our consumers._tvH  0޽h ? 3380___PPT10.mk= r`"UҌ*4V`أ4xI:R`v1|yƇG&1Oh+'0ȭ hp  , 8 DPXLFamily Style as a Tool in Transition of Hispanic Youth with Disabilities christineMaple Christine37Microsoft Office PowerPoint@HQ@Л{/a@|uGhg  ,V'&" WMFC <8?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'(*+,-./02345678=Root EntrydO)Current User1SummaryInformation(PowerPoint Document(DocumentSummaryInformation8)