RHAB 5710 Rehabilitation in a Multicultural Society
Fall, 2006
Env 190
Instructor: Paul Leung
Chilton 216 (940) 369-7939
Course Description:
This course is designed to explore the philosophical basis of a multicultural approach to rehabilitation along with developing operational cultural competencies related to rehabilitation counseling and other services to persons with disabilities who are from diverse backgrounds and experience. The intersection of culture and disability is complex and will require utilizing multiple resources from history to psychology as well as multiple methodologies.
Course Objectives:
1. Knowledge and understanding of the significance of ethnicity and culture in American society
2. Knowledge and understanding of one’s own cultural perspective and how it affects behavior
3. Understanding the impact of culture and ethnicity on access and practice of rehabilitation
4. Understanding and knowledge of the meaning of disability for diverse ethnic and cultural populations
5. Ability to incorporate multicultural rehabilitation competencies into practice
Learning Structure:
The class will use a workshop approach. Key to learning is the interaction that occurs and the sharing of information by all. Assignments have been designed to structure experiences and will require your full participation to be successful.
Accommodations: Please let me or the UNT ODA know if you require accommodations.

1. Fadiman, A. (1998) The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, Noonday Press, New York
2. Surgeon General (2001) Mental Health: Culture, Race, & Ethnicity
U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. (available at
3. Readings Packet (Purchase at Kendall Hall Copy Center)
Others as assigned


As our nation becomes increasingly diverse and as we become more and more intertwined within a global society, organizations and individuals with multicultural skills and knowledge will be increasingly required. In addition, as competent rehabilitation professionals, we must believe that people from diverse backgrounds are capable of working together as equal partners with respect and harmony. The following assignments are designed to assist students to assess themselves, provoke questions, and to gain experiences that will broaden their perspectives.
1. Effects of Cultural Influence on me as a Rehabilitation Counselor.
As rehabilitation professionals, we must understand our own perspective, where we come from, and who we are if we are to understand and be able to work effectively with our clientele - the consumer. This assignment offers you the opportunity to take a look at who you are as an ethnic or cultural being regardless of how others may see or view who you are. I think this will be particularly interesting to those of you who are white or who are often perceived to be a part of the majority. We all have a cultural identity but many who are part of or who are seen as the majority have not spent much time examining that part of you.
A key element of this paper is a summary of how your personal cultural identity may affect or play a role in your behavior and function as a rehabilitation professional. Discuss ways that you have interacted with or may interact with individuals from other cultures or with other belief systems. How does your personal ethnicity and identity affect your counseling?
This assignment forces you to look at your family history. Think and identify some of the traditions and activities that were a part of your experience growing up. For example:
• Were your parents, grand parents, and even great grandparents immigrants to the United States?
• What was their heritage?
• Is there a vestige of that heritage in your life?
• What about your religion and what role does it have in your life?
• What about beliefs that you hold dear?
• Where did your values and beliefs come from and why are they important to you?
• Do you identify with a particularly ethnic or cultural group? Why?
• Was it something that you grew up with or thought about?
• Was it an identity that was thrust upon you based on your skin color or who others think you ought to be?
• Or did you make a conscious decision about who you think you are or should be?
After thinking about these and other questions, write a short (2-3 pages) paper about who you are culturally. Identify traditions, beliefs, values, rituals and other activities that are a part of that cultural identity. Finally, summarize how that cultural identity may affect your behavior and function as rehabilitation professional and in your work with clients/consumers.
2. World View Essay:
What determines how we perceive things, events, service providers? Obviously, many things affect how we view our world. One of the most potent influences seems to be who we are in terms of race/ethnicity. We don't need to look far for examples. In recent history, the catastrophe of Katrina and her aftermath illustrated the huge divide between races and what each group saw happen. This assignment asks that you explore, albeit superficially, some of the factors that may impact on a particular ethnic/cultural groups perception of others. From your research, write a one to two page essay synthesizing your ideas.
Chose a particular population (other than your own) and review some of the history and events that impacted them in the United States including when (how long ago). From what you have learned about the group, psychology and sociology, briefly describe what one or two of those events may influence that population today. For example, the Cherokees were removed from their lands and forced on a journey where many perished. Does this still have an effect on the ancestors of those who were involved? What would that impact be and why would it continue to affect their perceptions?
You may wish to include examples from;
• history (time line of events, immigration, etc),
• religion, belief systems),
• values and traditions (Thanksgiving-an American holiday),
• education and literacy.
Write a 2-3 page essay using one specific ethnic/cultural group as your example.

3. Cultural Experience Assignment :
Though many of you may have traveled extensively, have had many experiences with individuals from different cultures, and have taken classes about foreign countries, if you are like myself, your friends are probably not too different from yourself in terms of their values, education, etc. We tend to be most comfortable with those who are similar to us. The purpose of this assignment is to move you out of that comfort zone just a bit. This assignment challenges you to explore and stretch your personal boundaries by immersing yourself into a multicultural situation that you have never before experienced.
You are asked to identify a cultural group with whom you have little or no experience, and spend at least a half a day in a setting that is "foreign" to you. Feel free to choose your own cultural experience. The only requirement is that it be one that you have had little knowledge about and that is different from who you are. Some examples of activity can be ethnic festivals or fairs, religious events or worship services, visiting specific ethnic neighborhoods,etc.
Before you attend the event, complete the Cultural Experience Journal, as you consider the reasons for choosing this minority group, any expectations or assumptions you may have, emotional responses to the thought of attending the event, etc. Also think about questions you may wish to ask the participants.. In addition to completing the Journal, you may also want to do some research about the population you have chosen before the activity (visit websites, read a book or some popular magazines, etc.).
During the event, you should actively participate as appropriate, speak with others, and ask questions of others who are present. Feel free to indicate that you are a student and that you are there to learn. Immediately after the activity, spend some time journaling your experiences, emotions, ideas, reflections, etc. Compare it to the Cultural Experience Journal you completed before the event.
Finally, write a three to five page paper providing an overview of your immersion experience. Refer to your journal writings as you develop your paper. Discuss areas such as reasons why you selected this population, experiences and highlights, issues and concerns, and any additional outcomes from the activity. Your co-instructor will be particularly interested how this exercise ties in with what you've learned so far in the course that contributed to your knowledge about diversity and rehabilitation counseling.

Warning, Waiver and Release of Liability
This course requires students to participate in field trips, research or studies that include course work that will be performed off-campus. Participation in such activities may result in accidents or personal injury. Students participating in the event are aware of these risks, and agree to hold harmless the University of North Texas and its officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, suits, judgments, expenses and costs of any kind on account of their participation in the activities. Students using their own vehicles to transport other students to such activities should have current automobile insurance.
I hereby waive, release and discharge any and all claims for damages for death, personal injury or property damage which I may have, or which hereafter accrue to me, against the University of North Texas (the University) as a result of my participation in the event. This release is intended to discharge the University, its trustees, officers, employees and volunteers, and any public agencies from and against any and all liability arising out of or connected in any way with my participation in the event. I further understand that accidents and injuries can arise out of the event which may cause personal injury; knowing the risks, nevertheless, I hereby agree to assume those risks and to release and to hold harmless all of the persons or agencies mentioned above who might otherwise be liable to me (or my heirs or assigns) for damages. It is further understood and agreed that this waiver, release and assumption of risk is to be binding on my heirs and assigns. It is the intention of the parties hereto that the provisions of this paragraph be interpreted to impose on each party responsibility for their own negligence.
I acknowledge that I have been fully informed of the risks and dangers involved in this field trip. I have been made aware that when using my own vehicle I must have current automobile insurance. I acknowledge that I have read and fully understand the above Warning, Waiver and Release of Liability. I further acknowledge that the reasons for my being requested to sign this Release have been fully explained to me and that I understand them.
I am signing this Release of my own free will and I have not been influenced or coerced by any representative or employee of the State (students under age eighteen (18) must have the signature of their parent or guardian).

Participant's Signature:__________________________________
Student Identification #________________________________________

4: Disability/Rehabilitation and Culture: Paper Assignment (3-5 pages)

This assignment involves writing a short but formal (use APA style and documentation) paper. Choose a particular culture or ethnic group (as specific or broad as you like (e.g. a particular group such as Cambodian or a category such as Latino) but as in earlier assignments different from your own cultural identity. Focus your research on how this group defines, perceives or describes disability and/or those ideas and concepts that are important for rehabilitation.
Your discussion should include answers to some of the following questions:
• What is the meaning of disability to the group in question?
• How are persons who have disability treated?
• What is expected of persons with disabilities?
• Are these concepts similar or different from mainstream American or western culture?
• What should a rehabilitation professional know and how would that affect what is done in a vocational rehabilitation context?
• Use both traditional library resources (books, journals) and the Internet equally (approximately 5-8 total).
This will not be an easy assignment as there is relatively little in the literature that focuses specifically on disability. As always, feel free to be creative. You may have to borrow ideas and thoughts from other discipline areas such as health, anthropology, sociology, mental health, etc. and apply them to disability.

Tentative Schedule
September 9 Introduction
What are the issues? Multiple and Confusing
Why this class? Complexities and Difficulties
Readings: Middleton, et al (2000)Endorsement of
Professional Multicultural Competencies
Sue (2005) Racism and the Conspiracy of Silence
Stam (1997) Multiculturalism and the Neoconservatives
McIntosh (1995) White Privilege and Male Privilege
Tweed & Lehman (2002) Learning Considered Within
A Cultural Context
September 16 Definitions (UNT Diversity & Equity Office)
Identity – Culture & Disability
Readings: Disability Culture (1998)
Ostomy Culture (2003)
Comas-Diaz (2001) Hispanics, Latinos, or
Health Psychology (2004) How Changes in Population…
Assignment 1-2 Discussion
“Can cultures clash?”

Discussion on Fadiman and “Crash”

October 7 (Field Experiences)

October 21 “Who?”
Major Cultural/Ethic Populations
Assignment 3 Discussion
Readings: Surgeon General’s Report
Garrett (1999) Understanding the “Medicine” of Native
Erickson & Al-Timmi (2001) Providing Mental Health
To Arab Americans
Nassar-McMillan & Hakim-Larson (2003)
Moniter (2005) Hispanic Psychology
Professional Psychology (2004) The Meaning of Pain
Nov 4 “Diversity Includes?”
Gays & Lesbians, Transsexuals
November 18 Differing Views of Disability
“Vocational Rehabilitation: Counseling and Service
Health Psychology (2004) Preferences for Arthritis Care among Urban African Americans
Discussion Assignment 4

December 2

Brown (2002) The Role of Work & Cultural Values
Austin (1999) Culturally Sensitive Career Assessment
Maples et al (2001) Ethnic Diversity & Use of Humor
Wu (2002) Tough to Say
Kim & Atkinson (2002) Asian American Client Adherence
Wilson et al (2002) Predicting VR Acceptance
Capella (2002) Inequities in the VR System
Wheaton & Hertzfeld (2002) Ancestry and Severity of


Web Resources:
Rehabilitation in a Multicultural Society:
General Census Info

Asian Americans

African Americans

Hispanic Americans

Americans with Disabilities

Multicultural Counselor Competencies:
Diversity and Disability:

Identity and Ethnicity:
Ethnic Identity

White American Culture

White Identity and Race Relations In The
White Identity and Race Relations In The 1990s

Major Cultural Ethnic Populations:
The Anti-defamation League

Surgeon General's Report - Mental health

African American - Nation of Islam:
African American Timeline

American Counseling Association - Counseling African Americans

1997 Survey of African American-Owned Business Enterprises

Howard University Rehabilitation Research and Training Center

Storm Front

The Nation of Islam

Islam Guide

Hispanic Americans:
Hispanic American Timeline resources/tline_hispanic_american.html

1997 Economic Census Survey of Hispanic-Owned Business Enterprises

Proyecto Visión: National Technical Assistance Center for Latinos with Disabilities

The Powwow Editions

RedRoad Native American and Multi-cultural Zin

Blue Cloud Center

American Indian Rehabilitation Research and Training Center

Native American Timeline

American Indian Disability Technical Assistance Center

1997 Economic Census

Asian American and Pacific Islander:
Asian American Timeline resources/tline_asian_american.html

Asian American Issues csp615.summer02/resources/wl_asian_am.html

1997 Economic Census Survey of Asian and Pacific Islander Owned Business Enterprises

White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

Disability Issues in Major Cultural Ethnic Populations:
Developing Innovative Solutions for Rural Americans with Disabilities, Research and Training Center on Rural Rehabilitation Services

ADA Technical Assistance Program

National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research

Blindness Resources

About Deafness/Hard of Hearing

Disability Resources

Gay and Lesbian:
Gay/Lesbian International News


Gay and Lesbian Advocates and Defenders

Women and Multicultural:
Feminist Organization

National Organization of Woman

Global Fund for Women

Business & Professional Women/USA

National Women's Health Information Center site for Women with Disabilities

Literature on Access - Perspective of Major Cultural Ethnic Populations and the VR System:
The Advocacy Training Technical Assistance Center

NIDRR Programs & Projects

RSA Programs & Projects

Culture, Race and Ethnicity - Career Assessment/Development:
Office of Employment Support Programs

Pacific Disability and Business Technical Assistance Center


Cultural Diversity: Related Terminology

The following definitions are not intended as legal definitions or necessarily reflect policies of the University of North Texas or the University of North Texas System.

Acceptance: Ability to value each person as an individual. Expressive of the benefits of diversity.
Access: Equal opportunity.
Accommodation: Reasonable change in the programmatic environment and/or physical environment, which enables a person with a disability, according to the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), to enjoy equal access and opportunities (as an example, provision of sign language interpreter, copies of lecture notes and conducting a meeting in a barrier-free environment).
Acculturation: Process of learning a culture, or cultural patterns. A person may learn more than one culture.
Activist: One who vigorously supports or opposes one side of a somewhat controversial issue.
Advocacy: Supporting or promoting a cause.
Affirmative action: Active effort to increase the representation of underrepresented groups in all facets of society.
African American: Individual of African descent living or born in the United States.
Afrocentricity: A worldview/research concept viewing phenomena from the perspective of the African person. Belief in the pride of African descent.
Afrocentrism: Interpretation of Afrocentric analysis as being expressive of superior feelings.
Alaska Native: Individual who is an Alaska Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut or combination thereof, as recognized by the United States Secretary of Interior as having identified rights and responsibilities and is eligible for services provided by the United States of America because of his/her status as Indian.
Alien: Person from another country.
Ally: One who enables a friendly association that provides non-judgmental assistance or support.
American: In the United States, this term is used to refer to persons born and raised in the United States. American also refers to Canadians, Mexicans and persons from Central and South America.
American Indian: Indigenous person who occupied the territory now known as the United States of America, who was legally labeled Indian beginning with treaty negotiations and in the adoption of the United States Constitution. This term is also used throughout Latin America (Indo Americano).
American Sign Language (ASL): Language of most Americans who are deaf. ASL includes syntax, grammar, vocabulary, facial expressions and body language that are unique from other languages. Visual language primarily used by strong core deaf culture members.
Ancestry: One’s ancestors or members of a person’s family.
Androgynous: Having male and female qualities.
Anglo: White North American resident whose native language is English. American of English birth or ancestry.
Anti-Semitism: Hostility toward or prejudice against Jews or Judaism.
Arbitration: Process whereby a neutral third party makes a decision after hearing facts.
Asexual: Person who is not sexually attracted to others.
Asian: Relating to Asia (including Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and others) or its peoples, languages or culture.
Asian American: Individuals living or born in the United States of Asian descent. Includes Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and others.
Assimilation: Giving up part or all of one’s culture to become part of a larger or dominant group.
Barrier: An obstacle that may prevent, hinder or undermine something from occurring.
Being out: Integrating one’s sexual orientation into other aspects of one’s life.
Belief: Trust or confidence in what one believes to be true.
Bias: Prejudice or preference.
Bicultural: Incorporating aspects of two cultures.
Bigot: One who is strongly partial to one's own group and is intolerant of those who differ. May be motivated by a desire to deny others empowerment.
Bigotry: Act or belief stemming from an individual’s own opinion and prejudice, including racial and cultural superiority. May be expressive of fear and ignorance.
Biological sex: Determined by chromosomes, hormones, and internal and external genitalia.
Biracial: Relating to, involving, or acting on behalf of two races. Consisting of members of two races.
Bisexual: Individual sexually and affectionately attracted to males and females.
Black: Reference to persons of African descent. A term expressive of self-empowerment resulting from oppression. African American. The United States Census Bureau and other governmental agencies use the term Black and African American. Consequently, the term Black is acceptable in a “scientific” discussion.
Caucasian: Person who often has light skin coloration and is indigenous to Europe and western Asia.
Chicano: Term may be preferred by persons accenting uniqueness in being neither a colonized Mexican nor a United States immigrant. Chicano is used primarily to designate persons of Mexican descent living in the United States and who have citizenship or established permanent residency. Political movement originated in California and the Southwest, to express cultural pride and articulate struggles against discrimination endured since the mid-nineteenth-century conquest of Mexico’s territory. There are several theories of the origin of the term Chicano.
Civil rights: Privileges upheld by government.
Class: Group sharing common attributes including economic or social status.
Classism: Bias based on social or economic class.
Coalition: Persons united around common and specific issue (s) and goal(s).
Comfort level: Amount of trust, understanding, confidence, support and awareness one exhibits related to a given situation.
Coming out: Process of being open with others about one’s sexual orientation.
Creed: Cultural, religious, social and other beliefs of a group.
Cross-cultural: Pertaining to more than one culture.
Cultural competency: Effectively relating in a participative manner to the culture and cultural values of another person. Cultural mobility. Trans-cultural.
Cultural equivalency: When persons of different cultural backgrounds are interacting and successful understanding occurs.
Cultural incompetence: Not effectively relating to and participating in the culture and cultural values of another person.
Cultural mobility: Effectively relating in a participative manner to the culture and cultural values of another person. Cultural competency. Trans-cultural.
Cultural pluralism: Approach focusing on benefits brought forth by bringing together more than one culture.
Cultural traits: Discrete units of one’s culture, including specific characteristics of one’s way of life, which may or may not be a learned behavior passed from one generation to another.
Culture: The way of life of a group of people, including beliefs, behaviors, values and language, and may also include shared ethnicity, religion, education, organizational affiliation, food, music and dress.
Culture shock: Anxiety and discomfort caused by unknown and different beliefs, social behaviors and racial, religious or social traits when one is faced with a new culture.
Culture universals: Compilation of various components including language, material traits such as food, shelter and clothing, religion, art, music, family, social organization, business system, politics and science. These characteristics may be used when comparing characteristics of one culture to another.
Custom: Practices important to a particular culture, class or other group.
Deaf: Generally refers to persons with severe or profound hearing loss who cannot hear or understand spoken language by hearing, although sounds may be heard.
Deaf community: Encompasses persons with hearing losses and those who are hard of hearing. D/deaf members of this community prefer to use oralism, Manually Coded English signing system, American Sign Language or another signing mode.
Deaf culture: Communication, behavior, values and norms shared by persons who are deaf. Members of this diverse community accept ASL as the visual language. Deaf culture is represented by “D.”
Demographics: Specific characteristics or descriptors, such as age, race, religion, sex, occupation and others.
Derogatory terms: Words or phrases which persons of certain groups (as an example, racial, ethnic or cultural groups) may find offensive, such as girl, gal, boy, redneck, little fellow, queer and others. Terms may demean, disenfranchise or devalue another person.
Disability: Physical or mental impairment that substantially limits major life activity.
Disadvantaged: Not having benefit(s) others may have, including economic, political and educational.
Discrimination: Prejudiced outlook, communication or action. Systematic or patterned mistreatment of a person or group because of the group they belong to or are perceived to belong to.
Diverse work force: Employed persons representative of various cultures, races and ethnicities, including persons differentiated or assimilated by gender, age, sexual orientation, religion, political affiliation, socio-economic background, education or other qualities.
Diversity: Multiplicity going beyond culture, race and ethnicity.
Dog guide: Dog trained to provide life-saving and routine assistance to persons with disabilities as well as members of other populations, including the elderly. Assistance is not limited to persons who are sight impaired. Assistance dog. Service dog.
EFL: English as a foreign language.
Egalitarian value system: Social equality in a classless society.
Emigrant: Person who leaves his/her country of origin to reside in a foreign country.
Empowerment: Achieve or promote self-actualization or influence of authority or power.
Enculturation: Process of learning one’s own culture and related traditions.
Equity: Equality of opportunity for all individuals.
Equity and diversity: Respect, fairness, justice and civility for all.
ESL: English as a second language.
Ethnicity: Describes a group of persons historically connected by common nationality, physical characteristics, background, customs, language and other relationships.
Ethnocentric: Tendency to view, analyze, or criticize other groups and cultures in terms of one’s own cultural values, assumptions, prejudices and beliefs. May be characterized by or based on the attitude that one's own ethnic group is superior to all others. Discounting ethnic differences may be based on fear and ignorance.
Eurocentric: Centered on Europe or Europeans. Reflecting a tendency to interpret the world in terms of western and European values, experiences and privileges.
Facilitate: To assist in making something occur; remove “road blocks.”
Familism: When extended family has a position of superiority over individual interests.
Family: More than one person, including persons who are related, who may live together and may have a shared commitment to a domestic relationship.
Feminism: Belief in equal rights for women.
First Nation: Native persons of the Americas. Preferred term used by many persons belonging to this group.
Gay: Homosexual male. Male who is attracted sexually and emotionally to other males. Inclusive term for those who are gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered (GLBT).
Gender: Behavioral, cultural or psychological traits typically associated with one sex.
Gender identity: Individual’s sense of oneself as being male or female (as examples).
Gender role: Socially constructed and culturally specific behavior and appearance expectations imposed on females (femininity) and males (masculinity).
Genocide: Planned extermination of an entire group, including national, racial, political and ethnic groups.
Ghetto: Generally an urban settlement reflecting constrained socioeconomic conditions and isolation from mainstream opportunity. Part of a city or neighborhood associated with poor quality housing, lack of economic activity and underdevelopment. Segregated environment related to members of a particular group.
GLBT: Acronym inclusive of persons who are gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered.
Global: Worldwide perspective, which may include cultural perspectives.
Handicap: Environmental or societal barrier(s), which limit or prevent a person with a disability from performing certain functions or carrying out activities. Term is not generally preferred today.
Hard of hearing: Person(s) with a moderate or mild hearing loss who may be able to understand spoken language through hearing when sounds are amplified.
Hate crime: Assault or defacement of property motivated by hostility towards the victim as a member of a group (as an example, based on race, gender or sexual orientation).
Hearing-impaired: Person(s) with a hearing loss. The term hearing-impaired is not generally preferred today by members of the deaf culture. Hearing loss, D/deaf or hard of hearing are more acceptable terms.
Hearing loss: Being D/deaf or hard of hearing.
Heritage: Traditions and beliefs passed down through generations to members of a group, society, country or nation.
Heterosexism: Assumption or belief that everyone should be heterosexual and that heterosexism is superior sexuality.
Heterosexual: Individual who may form sexual and affectionate relationships with members of the opposite sex.
Hispanic: Relating to, or being a person of Latin American descent, born and living in the U.S. Hispanic represents the concept of a cultural heritage with origins in Spain, with persons of various nationalities placed in a single category. U.S. government term used to designate individuals of Spanish-speaking descent, who are living in the United States.
Hispanic American: Individual of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican or other Spanish-speaking descent born in the United States. Term is not generally preferred today.
Hispanic serving institutions (HSI): Institutions of higher education serving the Hispanic-Latino population. An institution whose enrollment of undergraduate, full-time equivalent students is 25% or greater.
Hispano: Spanish adjective for Hispanic or Spanish. Often used by Spanish language speakers when referring to Spanish ancestry. Used as an indicator of cultural pride.
Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs): Institutions of higher education serving the African American population. Historically, Black colleges or universities were established prior to 1964.
Holocaust: Genocide of European Jews and others by Nazis during World War II.
Homophobia: Aversion to or discrimination against homosexuals or homosexual behavior. May be based on irrational fear and ignorance.
Homosexual: Characterized by a tendency to direct sexual and affectionate desire toward another of the same sex. Gay. Person often subjected to social and political oppression due to this identification.
Human race: All people or persons inhabiting the earth.
Immigrant: Person who resides in a nation, country, or region other than that of his/her origin. Non-native.
Impairment: Loss of physical or mental function(s). Term is not generally preferred today.
Inclusive: Providing a welcoming environment for all.
Indian: Individual who is an enrolled citizen of a n Indian tribe or Alaska Native. Indigenous people throughout the American continent. Person from India.
Indian tribe: North American Indian tribe, nation, band, rancheria, Pueblo or similar distinct community of native people indigenous to the continental United States and recognized as such by the United States.
Indigenous: Point of origin.
Institutional change: Systematic revision of the manner in which an organization conducts business and interactions with others, both internally and externally. May include cultural perspective.
Institutionalized discrimination: Pattern of unequal treatment based on group membership built into systems of a society or organization. Institutionalized oppression.
Integration: System of social inclusion that may be imposed by government.
Integrity: Being honest or saying what one means and doing what one says.
Intercultural: Relating to, involving or representing different cultures.
Intercultural communication: Communication between people of different cultures, which is influenced by cultural values, attitudes and behaviors.
Interethnic: Interaction of various persons or groups within a broader ethnic group.
Internalized oppression: Feeling one has been devalued, put down or held down by others. May cause inner conflict or depression.
Interracial: Relating to, involving or representing different races.
Intersexual: Person born with biological aspects, to varying degrees, of both sexes.
Intrinsic: Essential nature or characteristic.
“Ism”: Oppression of a particular group that may lead to systematic discrimination. Examples include racism and sexism.
Ku Klux Klan (KKK): White supremacist organization that dates back to the Civil War era.
Lack of comfort level: Degree of personal interaction or lack of interaction that may result in avoidance, hostility and communication difficulties.
Language: System used to communicate or share thoughts, feelings and ideas.
Language barriers: Communication difficulties, possibly due to accents, different languages or other factors.
Latin: Relating to the persons or countries of Latin America.
Latin America: Geographic region ranging from the U.S. Southwest to Tierra Del Fuego.
Latino: Individual of Latin American descent living in the United States. Term used to encompass the pan-identity that has evolved in the United States among persons of Spanish speaking descent. Term is also used to identify persons outside the United States.
Lesbian: Homosexual female. Female who may be attracted sexually and emotionally to other females.
Limited English Proficient (LEP): Individuals whose knowledge of English is somewhat limited.
Marginalization: Self-concept one may have based on one’s ethnicity, race or culture, in contrast to forces from a dominant culture or group. May result in exclusion. Often considered to generate strength in a person even though one may not feel part of a group.
Mediation: Process whereby a neutral third party facilitates two or more parties to resolve a dispute.
Mexican American: Individual of Mexican descent living or born in the United States.
Mexican/Mexicano: Mexican citizens who reside, work or visit in the United States.
Middle Eastern: Individual from countries of Southwest Asia, including countries extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east.
Minority: Racial, religious, political or other individual or group including women that represent the smaller percentage of a given population. Historically marginalized by the majority or predominant group within the culture.
Morphology: Aspects of word formation within a language.
Mosaic and tapestry of persons: Inclusion of persons of varying backgrounds, where individual similarities and differences are illustrated and valued.
Multicultural: Incorporating aspects of more than one culture.
Multiracial: Relating or belonging to various races.
National origin: Country where an individual is born.
Native American: Term used in making reference to more than 570 tribes or nations and their citizens who are legally referred to as American Indian. Some Native Americans prefer to be called Indian. Person born in the United States irrespective of his/her racial or ethnic identity.
Negotiate: To achieve through mutual discussion and/or agreement.
Negro: Describes persons of African descent. Word used decades preceding and through the Black movements of the 1960’s. Term has been replaced by Black or African American.
Oppression: Sense of being mistreated or devalued by institutions, attitudes, economy, political power or other method. Weighed down by unjust or cruel exercise of excessive authority or power.
Oral: When persons who are D/deaf have the ability to understand speech by watching lip movement and observing facial expression. Also called lip-reading, speech reading or oralism.
Out: acknowledgement of gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgendered identity to self and/or others.
Pacific Islander: Of or relating to persons from the Carolinas, Marianas (excluding Guam) and Marshall Islands.
Pansexual: Exhibiting or implying various forms of sexual expression.
Passing: Describes a person who is perceived to be a member of a certain group, when in reality they may not belong to the group (as an example, a gay person perceived to be heterosexual or someone perceived to be White). Privilege may result.
People or persons of color: Description often used in the United States for persons belonging to non-white racial and ethnic groups.
Person who is differently-abled: One who has, has a record of, or is perceived to have a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. As a positive expression, this term is now being used more frequently.
Person with disability: One who has, has a record of, or is perceived to have a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.
Personal accountability: Knowing oneself, which may or may not include privilege(s), and being responsible for who one is and for one’s actions.
Personal responsibility: Being aware of and taking charge of what one can control and realizing the effect on others.
Phobia: Fear and revulsion of a particular group that may lead to systematic discrimination. Examples include homophobia and sexphobia.
Physical Characteristics: Traits a person is born with, including skin color, size, type of hair, etc.
Pluralism: When numerous distinct ethnic, religious or cultural groups coexist.
Prejudice: Exerting bias and bigotry often based on stereotype(s) affiliated with a particular group of persons. Prejudging.
Privilege: Power, advantage, right or resource benefiting a person or group derived from historical oppression and exploitation of other groups.
Psychographics: Specific descriptors of a person or persons, including attitudes, interests and opinions.
Queer: Collective term for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered (GLBT) persons. Encompasses sexual and gender minorities. Term has been used in a derogatory or offensive manner to describe those who are labeled as odd, or who are believed to be GLBT.
Race: Human population distinguished by genetic or physical characteristics or of a particular ancestry.
Racial profiling: Focus that treats persons differently due to perceived race or related factors.
Racism: Act of discrimination based on belief of racial superiority.
Racist: Individual or institution practicing racism overtly (in an open or obvious manner) or covertly (not obvious or in a non-visible manner).
Record: Bias or misinformation one has acquired and internalized at some point in one’s life, which one may or may not be aware of.
Respect: Treating others with fairness and dignity at all times.
Reverse discrimination: Discrimination against member(s) of a majority, as a result of belonging to the majority.
Reverse racism: Implication of minority group having power to practice racism over majority group.
Segregation: System of social separation. May be imposed by government.
Self-concept: How one feels about himself or herself, often in comparison to others.
Self-esteem: Degree of respect or pride one has for oneself.
Semitic: Pertaining to Semites, particularly Arabic or Jewish.
Separatism: Belief in upholding division into one or more groups.
Sexism: Discrimination or oppression based on sex, particularly against women. Attitudes, conditions or behaviors that promote stereotyping social roles based on gender.
Sexual identity: Label, to include heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, pansexual, queer, questioning, asexual and others.
Sexual orientation: Determined by whom one is sexually attracted to. Categories include homosexual – gay and lesbian - attracted to members of the same sex; bisexual - attracted in varying degrees to some members of more than one sex; heterosexual - attracted to some members of opposite sex; and, asexual – not sexually attracted to others.
Sign language: Encompasses all sign languages including contact language, American Sign Language, Manually Coded English, gestures and pantomiming.
Signs: Symbols made primarily by moving hands and arms into different positions. Used by those who are deaf to communicate.
Slang: Informal dialogue or language characteristic of a particular group which may be unfamiliar to others thereby preventing effective communication.
Social class: Members of a group sharing similar economic or social status and may include a ranked system. Attempt to differentiate members of society according to their group affiliation or power and prestige affiliations.
Social justice: Fairness and equal opportunity for all.
Socialization: Process of learning to adjust to generally accepted norms of a group.
Society: Group of people who share a given culture.
South America: Southern part of the American continent which is southeast of North America between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, extending from the Caribbean Sea southward to Cape Horn.
South American: Person from South America.
Speech reading: Lip-reading. Understanding speech by observing movement of lips and facial expression.
Stereotype: A learned opinion or image of group members. Prejudice used to describe members of a group, where traits are assumed to be true for all group members. False perception or generalization based on limited information.
Subculture: Ethnic, regional, economic, social or other group exhibiting characteristic behavior sufficient to distinguish it from others within larger culture or society.
Tejano: Hispanic person from Texas.
Tolerance: Appreciation or acceptance of the differences of others.
Trans-cultural: Effectively relating in a participative manner to the culture and cultural values of another person. Cultural competency. Cultural mobility.
Transgender: Individual who exhibits, to varying degrees, appearance and behavioral characteristics and feelings associated with the opposite gender. Transgendered. Has been used as a broad term for gender-variant persons, including transsexuals, cross-dressers and those who identify as neither male nor female.
Transphobia: Fear or hatred of transgendered people.
Transsexual: Individual who exhibits, to varying degrees, appearance, behavioral characteristics and feelings associated with the opposite sex. Person whose gender identity is different than biological sex at birth. Transsexuals may hormonally and/or surgically change their bodies to more fully match their gender identity.
Tribe: Unit of social organization consisting of a number of families or other groups who share common characteristic(s) including ancestry or culture.
Understanding cultural differences in body language: Awareness of and being comfortable with those from other cultures, including variations in reaction, facial expression, eye contact, movement, personal space and touch.
Value: What is most important to someone.
Valuing diversity: Understanding and appropriately handling one’s biases, whereby contributions of individuals are treasured, respected and utilized for the benefit of all.
Welcoming environment: Setting where diversity is valued and considered to be a strength and where harassment based on individual differences is not tolerated. Individuals who work, study and live within such a community are expected to refrain from behavior that threatens the freedom, safety and respect deserved by every community member. When individuals demonstrate behavior that invites inclusiveness.
Wheel chair user: Person who uses a wheel chair, including persons with disabilities and others.
White: Member of the Caucasian race who often has light skin coloration.
White guilt: Members of the White majority group may feel culpable or guilty when they realize benefits received in comparison to others.
White privilege: Power and advantages benefiting Anglo, Caucasian and White individuals or groups resulting from oppression, and exploitation of other groups. Not all Whites benefit from this due to various factors.
You people: Derogatory term used to describe people different from oneself; assumption that all persons within a group are identical.
Xenophobic: Fearful or mistrusting of what is foreign, including persons of foreign origin.

Historical Time Lines (These are examples taken from numerous sources and some inaccuracies may exist)



1519 - Hernan Cortés brings horses from Spain to the Americas. Hernan Cortes army of Spaniards was accompanied by a large number of native auxiliaries. Spanish women also accompanied the expedition. Several Castillian women established themselves as nurses: Isabel Rodriguez, had a legendary touch with the wounded. Beatriz de Pardes, on occasion fought in place of her husband. Las Conquistadoras
1521 - Poncé de León in Florida -effort to establish colony. (Note: Christians where Catholic from the time of Christ up to the early 1500s).
1523 - Estéban Gomés scouts North American coast from Nova Scotia (Nova Scotia is east of Main, the most northern part of the eastern USA), and to the most southern of the USA Florida.
1524 - Franciscan Monks arrive.
1526 - Lucás Vasquéz de Ayllon -settled on the Savannah River.
1526 - Georgia - First European settlement was in present day Georgia, San Miguel de Gualdape, Founded and settled by Spain.
1528 - Don Panfilo and troops went north, encountered an indigenous village. Continued north and encountered the "Apalachee" tribe.
1530 - Tampico (Modern day Texas), established by Fray Andrés de Olmos
1534 -1536 - Cabéza de Vacá (and three others from the Narvaez expedition), walk from Galveston (Texas), New Mexico, and Arizona and to the West Coast of México.
1535 - Nuñez Cabez de Vacá performs the first surgical operation in the North American Continent near Pecos, Texas.
1536 - Nuñez Cabéza de Vacá, Estéban and the two others wander into New México and later spread rumors of Cibola.
1537 - The oldest Marine Corp in the world are the Spanish Marines, originated in 1537, which took part in the conquest of America.
1539 - The first press is introduced in the North American Continent by the Spanish.
1539 - Fray Márcos de Niza lead expedition into New México.
1539 to 1542 - Hernando de Sóto explores the lower south of the present day United States of America, leaves Cubá, travels inland across ten states, discovers the Mississippi River.
1540 - Francisco Vasquéz de Coronado Fráncisc7oacute; Vasquéz de Coronado explores California, Kansas, Arizona, New México, Texas, Oklahoma.
1540 - Melchor Diáz discovers California (under Vasquéz de Coronado). Melchor Diáz blazed more trails, saw more unexplored country, and rode more miles, than any other conquistador during the entrada.
1541 - De Sotó explores the Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast.
1542 - Juán Rodríguéz Cabrillo and Bartolome Ferrelo, explorer/reconnaissance up the west coast of North America up to Oregon and including the area of San Diégo.
1551 - The First University on the North American continent established. The Real y Pontificia Universidad de Mexico, had the same privileges as the Universidad de Salamanca, had five facultades/schools. (The University of Salamanca, Spain, was the Leading University in Europe of its time and still a leading University).
1565 - St. Augustine, Florida established by Pedro Menendez de Aviles.
1566 - Juan Pardo explores sections of Georgia, Tennessee and Alabama.
1566 - When the conquistadors learned that the Spanish crown was slowly centralizing decision-making and power, they feared that their privileges were threatened and revolted.
1570-72 - Father Segura establishes Mission in Chesapeake Bay area
1580 - Rodriguez-Chamuscado, Espejo-Beltran expeditions to New Mexico
1581- Chamuscado, Padre Rodriguez, and Espejo expeditions into New Mexico, Arizona and Texas.
1580 to 1640 - Horses introduced to the American Southwest. During this time Native Americans hunted buffalo by foot & when the Spanish introduced the horse, Native Americans hunted the buffalo by horse.
1590 - First attempt to colonize New Mexico by Gasparde Sosa.
1598 - Juan de Onate colonizing expedition establishes first Spanish capital at San Juan de los Caballeros
1608 - New Mexico made a Royal Province.
1610 -Gaspar Perez de Villagra publishes history of New Mexico
1610 - Palace of the Govenors Built in Sante Fe, New Mexico (still stands & in use!) Pedro de Peralta established The Oldest Continuous Governing Body on the North America continent, Santa Fe, New Mexico. San Estevan Church at Acoma Pueblo constructed 1629.
1666 - San Antonio de los Llanos (Texas) founded
1680 - Pueblo Revolt: Spanish forced to flee to El Paso del Norte (present-day Cuidad Juarez.)
1680 to 92 - Indians rule from the Palace of the Governors.
1669 to 1693 - Diego de Vargas reconquers New Mexico.
1696 - Second Pueblo Revolt.
1669 Father Junipero Serra and Captain Gaspar de Portola begin the land-based exploration and settlement of Alta California.
1702 - English from Carolina besieged Castillo de San Marcos unsuccessfully, but razed
St. Augustine, Florida.
1776 - The War of Independence: Our American Continental Army (George Washington and its Allies the Spanish Army) ultimately defeat the British. The American Revolution used funds collected from people living in the present states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California--then a part of Mexico.
1796 - Lieutenant-Colonel Pedro de Alberni arrives at San Francisco with the Catalonian Volunteers. However, the are sent to various presidios throughout Alta California.
c. 19th Century - Within the racial ideology of the 19th century, Anglo-Saxons considered Mexican Americans to be an inferior race because they were "a substandard racial mixture" of an inferior European race and Native Americans.
1850 - The pattern of extermination and ejection of Mexicans in central and southeast Texas in the 1850's reflected the racist attitudes of many Texans.
1861-1865 The Civil War USA, Hispanics were a major force in the Civil War USA.
1921- The Orden Hijos de América (Order of the Sons of America) in San Antonio, Texas. To combat unfair wages education, housing, and civil rights abuses against Hispanics.
1921- Immigration Act restricts the entry of Southern and Eastern Europeans. Efforts to include Mexicans in the restrictions are blocked by Supporters of the agriculture business in the Southwest.
1929 - The League of Latin American Citizens formed (LULAC) to combat the Civil Rights against Hispanics.
1948 - The American GI Forum, a Hispanic Veterans Organization formed (AGIF), Hispanic Veterans returning from the battles of World War II were being denied medical care by Veterans Hospitals and other abuses.
1950 - The use of Spanish in schools in Puerto Rico was restored after Puerto Rico became a Commonwealth of the United States in 1950.
1960s and 1970 - The Chicano Movement organized, Hispanics Civil Rights continue to be violated.
1964 - Civil Rights Act: The most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction, the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin.
1965 - Executive Order 11246 enforces affirmative action for the first time. Requires government contractors to "take affirmative action" toward prospective minority employees in all aspects of hiring and employment.
1965 - Immigration Law abolishes "national origins" as basis for allocating immigration quotas to various countries
1967 - Executive Order 11246 (affirmative action) amended to cover discrimination on the basis of gender.
1968 - science Luis Alvarez won the Nobel Prize for his work with subatomic particles
1995 - Mario Molina, along with two other scientists, won the Nobel Prize Prize in chemistry

12000-8000 BCE - Mississippian Culture Gr.Lakes to Gulf of Mexico. Technology: funeral mounds, dawb-watttle.
603 ACE - Technology: Moundville- found in Alabama; Spiro- found in Okl.
Circa 603-650 - Technology: Serpent Mound- found in E. Cincinnati, Ohio; Monk's Mound- found in E. St. Louis, Ill.
900 - Anasazi: Chaco Canyon, Albeqerqy, NM. Technology: qivas / pithouses / great houses / irrigation. Resources: turquoise. Religion: ritualized cannibalism
1325 - Natchi Nation; Eastern Louisiana Leader(s): Quigaltom
1640's - Spanish Exploration and Conquest of Native America
1670 - Iroquois Nation (New York State) Seneca (Cornplanter), Mohawk, Oneida, Onandaga, and Cayuga.
1670 - Five "CIVILIZED" Tribes: Echota, Knoxville TN Seminoles, Cherokee, Creek and Choctaw.
1763 - Pontiac Alliance; Seneca, Miami, Lenape, Huron, Shawnee
1778 - Treaty between United States and Delaware Indians, the first United States and Indian treaty, is negotiated in which Delaware tribe is offered the prospect of statehood.
1780-1800 - Smallpox and measles among Indians in Texas and New Mexico. In 1782-83, a smallpox epidemic among Sanpoils of Washington.
1781-89 - Under the Articles of Confederation defining federal and state relationships, it is accepted in principle that the central government should regulate Indian affairs and trade.
1782 - Christian Delaware Indians massacred in Ohio at Gnadenhutten.
1783 - Continental Congress issues a proclamation warning against squatting on Indian lands.
1784 - Congress orders the War Office to provide militia troops to assist commissioners in their negotiations with Indians. In 1786 - the secretary of War is made responsible for Indian affairs. In 1789 - Congress establishes a Department of War and formally grants the secretary of War authority over Indian affairs.
1784 - Northwest Company is chartered in Montreal, to compete with the Hudson's Bay Company.
1787 - Northwest Ordinance calls for Indian rights, the establishment of reservations, and sanctity of tribal lands, echoing the British Proclamation of 1763, but it also sets guidelines for the development of the Old Northwest, leading to increased white settlement.
1787-89 - In the Constitution drawn up in 1787, ratified by the required number of states (nine) by 1788, and put into effect in 1789, the federal government alone is given the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the states, and with Indian tribes.
1789-93 - Alexander Mackenzie (Canada), seeking northern river route to the Pacific Ocean, discovers the river now bearing his name and travels to Arctic Ocean. On a second expedition he completes first overland journey across North America north of Mexico, making contact with many tribes.
1790-94 - Little Turtle's War, involving many tribes of the Old Northwest. In 1794, the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
1790-99 - Four Trade and Intercourse Acts regulate Indian commerce and create the "factory system" of government trading houses. An informal Indian Department within the War Department is responsible for enforcing these regulations
1791-93 - George Vancouver (England) explores the Pacific Northwest. 1792 Robert Gray and William Broughton (U.S.) sails up the Columbia River.
1794 - Canadian Jay Treaty guarantees Mohawk Indians the right to travel unrestrictedly between the United States and Canada.
1791-1811 - David Thompson (Canada) explores the Canadian and American West.
1799 - Handsome Lake, a Seneca chief, founds the Longhouse religion.
c. 1800 - Silverwork becomes widespread among the Indians of the Northeast, eventually reaching the Indians of the Southwest.
1892 - Federal law prohibits the sale of liquor to Indians. Congress appropriates funds to "civilize and educate" the Indians.
1803 - Louisiana Purchase by the United States from France (who had gained the territory back from Spain two years before) adds a large Indian population to the United States. In 1804, the Louisiana Territory Act shows the intent of the United States to move eastern Indians west of the Mississippi.
1803-06 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark Expedition opens the American West.
1805-06 Zebulon Pike (U.S.) expeditions to source of the Mississippi River and the Rockies.
1805-20 - Simon Fraser (Canada) explores river now bearing his name, and he becomes the first white man to visit the Carrier tribe.
1806 - Office of Superintendent of Indian Trade is established in the War Department under the secretary of War, to administer federal Indian trading houses.
1808 - American Fur Company is chartered by John Astor to compete with Canadian fur trade. In 1810-12, an Astorian overland western expedition established trade relations with Indians.
1809 - The St. Louis Missouri Fur Company is charted by the Chouteau family. Treaty of Fort Wayne. General William Henry Harrison obtains 2 1/2 million acres from Indians in Ohio and Indiana.
1809-11 - Tecumseh's Rebellion. Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, endeavors to unite tribes of the Old Northwest, South, and the Mississippi Valley against the United States. His brother, Tenskwatawa, is defeated at Tippecanoe in 1811.
1809-21 - Sequoyah single-handedly creates a Cherokee syllabic alphabet so that his people's language can be written.
1811- "CIVILIZED" New Echota-Georgia
1812 - Seneca (Cornplanter) Events: Prophet's Town War (1812)
1813-14 Creek War in the Southeast. In the Treaty of Fort Jackson, Andrew Jackson strips Creeks of their land.
1816 - The Selkirk incident between the Metis and settlers in the Red River Valley of Canada over farmland.
1817-18 - First Seminole war in Southeast. Andrew Jackson invades Florida in a punitive expedition against the Indians. In 1819, Spain cedes Florida to the United States.
1819 - The Civilization Fund Act 1819 of authorized the funding and establishment of schools among Indian tribes. The prevai

Last modified: Friday, 3 November 2006, 05:21 PM