Rehabilitation Counseling
(EDS 460)


Fall 2006

Prerequisites 1
Course Description 1
Course Requirements 1
Grading 3
Course Format 3
Purpose/Objectives 5
Concepts to Be Learned/or Improved 5
Things to Remember When Seeing Clients 6
Dos and Don’ts 7
Confidentiality 7
Overview of Theory 9
Twenty Counseling Maxims 12
Check List for Practicum 14
Assessment Testing 16
Process of Career Decision Making 21

A - Counselor's Debriefing Form 23
B - Session Observation Form 26
C - Typical Day ……………………………………………………... 27
D - Personal Theory Base 28
E - Basic Listening Skills 29
F - Occupational Resources 30

California State University, Sacramento
Handbook for Rehabilitation Counseling

This handbook is to be utilized in addition to the Center for Counseling and Diagnostic Services’ handbook and forms.

COURSE: EDS 460 - Practicum in Individual Counseling/
Vocational Rehabilitation Counseling (3 Units)

PROFESSOR: Dr. Todd Koch

PREREQUISITES: Theory and Practicum in Counseling
Appraisal in Counseling
All Rehabilitation core courses
Not needed: Educational Research, Multi-Cultural
Counseling, Group Processing & Electives.
Note: This class is a prerequisite to EDS 461 - Field Study
for Vocational Rehabilitation Counseling.

DESCRIPTION: The purpose of this course is to improve one’s knowledge and skills through a supervised counseling experience. It is designed to provide an introductory opportunity for students to apply counseling theories, techniques and strategies learned in the classroom. Students will counsel individuals through the CSUS Center for Counseling and Diagnostic Services (CCDS).


1. Professional Liability Insurance: Students must have their own professional liability insurance policy prior to meeting with clients. This can be arranged through the American Counseling Association or the California Association Counseling Development for a fee. Obtaining this insurance is required prior to meeting with clients. If possible, obtain insurance prior to starting Practicum. This will allow for no delay in meeting with clients.

2. Audio Tape Recording: Students are expected to tape record each session they have with a client. Audio recording systems will be provided by the CCDS. Students are expected to provide two audiotapes (minimum of 110 minutes) and are responsible for security and erasure. Students must have the client sign the informed consent form prior to recording counseling sessions. This form must remain in client file. To protect client's privacy, students are urged to use only first names in their taped sessions and to only use the day and time of appointment to identify tape.

3. One to One Supervision: Each Student will be required to meet with the faculty supervisor for one hour each week. During this time, your audio tapes of the previous week's client counseling sessions will be reviewed and discussed. In addition, your Counselor Debriefing forms (see below) will be turned in and discussed.

4. Video Tape Recording: A minimum of one session will be video taped for observation by the Practicum supervisor and class. Video tapes and equipment will be provided by the CCDS. Tapes can be checked out for one (1) week. For reviewing in class, you will be asked to view your tape during your break and choose a section of approximately 10 minutes in length you would like to have observed by the class.

5. Written Reports:

To be kept in client file

Assessment & Treatment Plan: Must be completed by student within the first two sessions of meeting with a client. This form must remain in the client file at all times and must be completed in class.

Weekly Plan: This is to be completed following each session during break and must be placed in client file. This form must be updated each week, even if client did not show. If client does not show, note this on the Weekly Plan form with date of missed appointment and your initials.

Description: Describe the session, what happened/topic discussed.
Counselor Assessment: What took place during the session. Testing, interventions etc.
Treatment Plan: What do you plan on doing next session.
Provide date of session and your initials.

Turned into Practicum Supervisor/not to be kept in client file

Counselor Debriefing Form: After listing to the audiotape, students are required to complete this form. This form can be completed at home. It should be submitted each week at the beginning of class. Each write up must include goals for next counseling session and your preparation for the session. Due to confidentiality issues, do not use client names on forms. Use only time and day of the appointment for identification. Example: Thursday 4 p.m. (See Attachment A: Counselor Debriefing Form).

6. Participation: A course of this nature requires a high degree of participation for class discussion, critiques, and role-playing to be successful.

7. Observations: If you do not have a client, you will be expected to observe other students counseling sessions. You will be observing in the observation room located in the middle of the CCDS. For a guide to observing the Counseling Sessions see Attachment B. This form will assist you in observing the counseling session and in providing feedback during Session Processing.


This is a credit/no credit class. To receive credit for the Practicum, the following must be completed/performed satisfactorily:

•Assessment and Treatment form
•Counselor Debriefing forms
•Weekly plans
•Attendance: Class attendance is mandatory:
a. Clients will be depending on the student to whom they are assigned;
b. Observation of sessions is as important as counseling - Your fellow students will depend on your feedback to help them improve their counseling skills.
•Testing - proper utilization and interpretation of assessment
instruments including scoring.
•Establishing rapport with client(s)
•Weekly goal setting with client(s)
•Understanding and implementation of the counseling process
•Outside research/your preparation for each session
•File closure
•Other miscellaneous forms
•Maintaining confidentiality of files including verbal discussions.

Note: If you have special needs as addressed by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and need course materials in alternative formats, notify your course instructor immediately. Reasonable efforts will be made to accommodate your special needs.


Number of clients: Sessions will be held one day a week maximum of two sessions at set times. Each student will be assigned a minimum of one and a maximum of two clients at a time. If a client drops/stops (missed 2nd appointment in a row) the counseling session, then every effort will be made to establish you with another client.

Assignments of clients: The assignment of clients will first be focused on individuals with disabilities, disability adjustment issues, career needs, then, other presenting problems. However, the individuals assigned will depend upon the type and number of referrals to the counseling center. Be prepared for many different situations.

Time lines of appointments: Sessions will be held for 50 minutes once a week at set times. Inform clients that sessions will end promptly at 10 minutes till the hour even if they are late. Allow the last 10 minutes for session wrap up and assignments. It is important that you follow these guidelines due to the fact that you will have a second client and/or the next class will begin on the hour. You are expected to arrive for your first appointment 15 minutes early to set up your room and test your audiotape. See Attachment C for an outline of timelines of a Typical Day in Practicum.

Appointments: The CCDS will schedule all initial appointments for you. If a new client is a no show write "no show" in client's folder log sheet and notify CCDS staff. CCDS staff will contact client. If your client calls to cancel, a note will be in the class folder.

Contacting Your Clients: If your client does not show for your first appointment, log this onto your weekly attendance sheet in the front of client file. The Counseling Center will contact client to reschedule. If you have met with client once, then you will be responsible for contacting client. If you leave a message for a client, leave only your name and the CCDS’s phone number (916) 278-6252. Do not make reference to the fact that the person is in a counseling relationship nor give your home phone number.

Write ups/ paperwork: Following your counseling sessions, you will be given time to complete your Assessment & Treatment Plan form and Weekly Plan. Even if client does not show, it needs to be noted on the Weekly Plan and initialed. Following this, the group will meet to process the counseling sessions and to give and receive feedback from the Practicum Supervisor and other students. If you are observing, be prepared to discuss your observations. Remember this is a learning situation. If you have questions, would like clarification, or do not understand something, ask.

Log Sheet: Each file will have a log sheet located on the left-hand side. Log in if client showed, did not show, if they will return or terminate and any additional comments.

Requesting testing/books/supplies/copies from the CCDS: To request items or services from the CCDS, fill out request form located in the class folder. Items will be provided on the date requested and can be retrieved when class folder is picked up.

Outside Assignments: You are expected to research information or issues presented to you by your client. You must come to each counseling session prepared with a plan of action for that session. You may need to research a presenting problem, for example, a counseling theory that would benefit your client or testing instrument that may not be provided by the CCDS. This preparation includes scoring assessments before you meet with client. It is important that you have experienced an assessment instrument before you can properly administer/interpret it. Do not enter into the counseling session without being prepared. Remember to start assessment testing early in your sessions. This process takes time to complete.

The Counseling Debriefing Form should be completed at home. Remember that the session is confidential. Please listen to your audiotape in private and do not share information with others or leave tape in a place where others may listen to it.


1. The student will be able to conduct an initial interview with a person who has entered into a counseling relationship.

2. The student will be able to write up the information gained from the counseling session and the initial interview in acceptable form and style.

3. The student will be able to conduct on-going, individual rehabilitation counseling sessions with a person who has a disability.

4. The student will be able to set and implement goals for each individual counseling session.

5. The student will be able to be sensitive to and understand nonverbal, emotional cues, as well as verbal statements of the client, taking into consideration his/her cultural background.

6. The student will assess and evaluate his/her present counseling skills for the purpose of improving these skills with experience.

7. The student will be able to understand and apply the Code of Ethical Standards and Practices to case situations as they arise in the counseling experiences. This includes the administration and interpretation of assessment testing.

8. The student will apply theoretical concepts and counseling strategies within actual counseling sessions.

9. The student will be able to appropriately conclude the counseling relationship.


1. Ingredients of an effective helping relationship and the application of ethical standards.

2. Nonverbal communication including postures, behaviors, manipulative behaviors, and emotional states, taking into consideration multi-cultural differences in communication.

3. Verbal communication, including communication with speech, hearing, or visually challenged clients.

4. Listening responses including counselor self-disclosure, positive reinforcement, summary, and clarification techniques.

5. Action responses including problem resolution, focusing on residual capacities, and goal setting.

6. Sharing and teaching responses to develop independent, problem solving skills leading to career development or employment.

7. Defining the problem including mobility, dealing with negative attitudes, compliance with medical treatment, motivation, and review of vocational interests, etc.

8. Common elements of strategy implementation to deal with dependency, employer attitudes, independent problem solving, etc.

9. Selecting and defining goals.

10. Report writing.

11. Selecting, administering and interpretation of assessment instruments.

12. Selecting helping strategies, taking into consideration multi-cultural diversity.

13. Concluding the helping relationship.


1. Dress - slacks and sport shirts for men/dresses or pantsuits for women when you are counseling. Remember, even though you are on campus and in a class, you are in a professional counseling relationship.

2. This is a learning experience. Clients are not as fragile as one might expect. It is almost always possible to correct mistakes made with clients in one counseling session during the next session.

3. Remember you are the expert in this counseling situation. You need to keep control of the counseling session keeping the direction focused on the presenting problem. A good way of doing this is to be prepared for the counseling session and having set goals you would like to work on.

4. The counselor is always facing the glass. Client should always be facing the door. Remember to set your room up for the activity you plan for that day. If you will be having the client taking an assessment, reviewing books or other material, or writing information, set up a table.


Things to Do:
•Talk quietly while in the observation room
•Keep the light off in the observation room
•Be very quiet in the observation room
•Keep testing table clear of irrelevant material
•Keep a comprehensive list of references and resources as they are recommended by your professor
•Fill out necessary paper work as soon as possible
•Be early to your sessions
•Be prepared for your sessions
•Practice tests and giving instructions on how to take tests before you administer them
•Leave reports in the client file at the CCDS
•Clean up your room when done
•Have tissue in the room
•Have insurance before you start to counsel
•Check with your supervisor if you have any questions or concerns
•Bring high quality cassette tapes

Things not to do:
•Eat or chew gum while with client
•Eat or drink in observation tunnel
•Give your home phone number to clients
•Take client records out of the clinic; do all report writing in designated room
•Be “wordy” when writing reports.
•Wait to organize or complete information in file till the end of the semester
•Be uninsured
•Be late for sessions.
•Leave your room late so that the next person has to wait.
(Herink et al., 1997, pp. 4-5)


As a counselor it is imperative that you know and understand the area of Counseling Ethical and Legal Considerations. Below is a resource for information on this area and a brief overview of confidentiality. If you are not familiar with the counseling ethical and legal considerations, it is recommended that you research this.

Reference information for Counseling Ethics:
American Association for Counseling and Development (Now American Counseling Association) (1988). “Ethical Standards of the American Association for Counseling and Development (3rd Revision), AACD Governing Council, March 1988,” Journal of Counseling and Development, 67, Sept, pp. 4-8.


Because openness and honesty are essential ingredients of any counseling session, confidentiality is considered a necessary condition. Clients have the right to determine who will have access to information about them and their treatments. Thus, it is important that you are careful not to violate confidentiality through carelessness.

Important confidentiality factors to consider for your practicum experience:

A Release of Information must be signed by client before communicating with other agencies, recording sessions, or having sessions observed.

Records need to be safeguarded. All records, case notes and other written or recorded information about the client should be kept secured, preferably in locked file cabinets.

Processing your experience is an important part of your training. In fact, you will be asked to process your sessions with your immediate class. Outside processing/ discussion of client leaves open issues of confidentiality. If you should find yourself in this position, always consider one or more of the following about when, where and how to share information. To help now and in the future about revealing information, consider the following.

Who is this person?
Has permission been given to release information to them?
Why do they want the information?
What information are they requesting?
Where are you? In a private or public setting where others may overhear?
Even if you are not using names, certain information can be revealed to allow someone to identify themselves or others.
When should you share information? Is now the best time or will you be rushed? Would it be better to wait when you have adequate time to discuss and explain things?
If this person is someone outside your agency, how will you share the information? Should the conversation be in person or on the phone or should it be formal in writing?
(Baird, 1996, p. 33)

Remember you are a practicing counselor in this setting and all legal ethical considerations apply to you.


Through your education you have learned a variety of techniques and skills that have prepared you to be an effective counselor. As your practicum experience begins this is an opportune time to reflect on counseling theories in general and your own personal theoretical base. Listed below are several theories you learned in your training. Review these theories and complete Appendix D discussing your primary theoretical mode of counseling.

Psychoanalytic Theory
Basic Philosophies:
Human beings are basically determined by psychic energy and by early experiences. Unconscious motives and conflicts are central in present behavior. Irrational forces are strong; the person is driven by sexual and aggressive impulses.
Goals of Therapy:
To make the unconscious conscious. To reconstruct the basic personality. To assist client in reliving earlier experiences and working through repressed conflicts.
Techniques of Therapy:
The key techniques are interpretation, dream analysis, free association, analysis of resistance, and analysis of transference. All are designed to help clients gain access to their unconscious conflicts, which leads to insight and eventual assimilation of new material by the ego. Diagnosis and testing are often used. Questions are used to develop a case history.

Adlerian Therapy:
Basic Philosophies:
A positive view of human nature is stressed. Humans are motivated by social interest, by striving toward goals, and by dealing with the tasks of life. People are in control of their fate, not victims of it. Each person at an early age creates a unique style of life, which tends to remain relatively constant throughout life.
Goals of Therapy:
To challenge clients’ basic premises and goals. To offer encouragement so they can develop socially useful goals. To change faulty motivation and help them feel equal to others.
Techniques of Therapy:
Adlerians draw from many techniques, a few of which are paraphrasing, providing encouragement, confrontation, interpretation, gathering life-history data (family constellation, early recollections), therapeutic contracts, homework assignments, paradoxical intention, and suggestions.
Existential Therapy:
Basic Philosophies:
The central focus is on the nature of the human condition, which includes capacity for self-awareness, freedom of choice to decide one’s fate, responsibility, anxiety as a basic element, the search for a unique meaning in a meaningless world, being alone and being in relation with others, and finiteness and death.
Goals of Therapy:
To help people see that they are free and to become aware of their possibilities. To challenge them to recognize that they are responsible for events that they formerly thought were happening to them. To identify factors that block freedom.
Techniques of Therapy:
Few techniques flow from this approach, because it stresses understanding first and technique second. The therapist can borrow techniques from other approaches and incorporate them into an existential framework. Diagnosis, testing, and external measurements are not deemed important. The approach can be very confrontive.

Person-centered therapy:
Basic Philosophies:
The view of humans is positive; humans have an inclination toward becoming fully functioning. In the context of the therapeutic relationship the client experiences feelings that were previously denied to awareness. The client actualizes potential and moves toward increased awareness, spontaneity, trust in self, and inner directness.
Goals of Therapy:
To provide a safe climate conducive to clients’ self-exploration so that they can recognize blocks to growth and can experience aspects of self that were formerly denied or distorted. To enable them to move toward openness, greater trust in self, willingness to be a process, and increased spontaneity and aliveness.
Techniques of Therapy:
This approach uses few techniques but stresses the attitudes of the therapist. Basic techniques include active listening and hearing, reflection of feeling, clarification, and “being there" for the client. This model does not include diagnostic testing, interpretation, taking a case history, and questions or probing for information.

Gestalt Therapy:
Basic Philosophies:
The person strives for wholeness and integration of thinking, feeling and behaving. The view is antideterministic, in that the person is viewed to have the capacity to recognize how earlier influences are related to present difficulties. Growth involves moving from environmental support to self-support.
Goals of Therapy:
To assist client in gaining awareness of moment to moment experiencing. Then challenge them to accept responsibility for internal support as opposed to depending on external support.
Techniques of Therapy:
A wide range of techniques is designed to intensify experiencing and to integrate conflicting feelings. Techniques include confrontation, dialogue with polarities, role playing, staying with feeling, reaching an impasse, and reliving and re-experiencing unfinished business in the forms of resentment and guilt. Gestalt dream work is very useful. Formal diagnosis and testing are not done. Interpretation is done by the client instead of by the therapist. Confrontation is often used to call attention to discrepancies. “How” and “what” questions are used.

Transactional analysis:
Basic Philosophies:
The person has potential for choice. That was once decided can be rededicated. Although the person may be a victim of early decisions and past scripting, self-defeating aspects can be changed with awareness.
Goals of Therapy:
To help client become script-free, autonomous people capable of choosing how they want to be. To assist them in examining early decisions and making new decisions based on awareness.
Techniques of Therapy:
A script analysis checklist, or questionnaire, is useful in recognizing early injunctions. Many techniques of transactional analysis and Gestalt can be fruitfully combined. Some type of diagnosis may be useful to assess the nature of a problem. Clients participate actively in diagnosis and are taught to make their own interpretations and value judgments. Confrontation is often used and contracts are essential. Questioning is a basic part of the approach.

Behavior Therapy:
Basic Philosophies:
Behavior is the product of learning. We are both the product and the producer of environment. No set of unifying assumptions about behavior can incorporate all the existing procedures in the behavioral field.
Goals of Therapy:
Generally to eliminate maladaptive behaviors and learn more effective behaviors. To focus on factors influencing behavior and find what can be done about problematic behavior. Clients have an active role in setting treatment goals and evaluating how well these goals are being met.
Techniques of Therapy:
The main techniques are systematic desensitization, realization methods, reinforcement techniques, modeling, cognitive restructuring, assertion and social-skills training, self-management programs, behavioral rehearsal, coaching, and various multimodal-therapy techniques. Diagnosis or assessment is done at the outset to determine a treatment plan. Questions are used, such as, ”what,” “how,” and “when”(but not why). Contracts and homework assignments are also typically used.

Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy:
Basic Philosophies:
Humans are born with potentials for rational thinking but also with tendencies toward crooked thinking. They tend to fall victim to irrational beliefs and to reindoctrinate themselves with these beliefs. Therapy is oriented toward cognition, behavior, and action and stresses thinking, judging, analyzing, doing, and rededicating. This model is didactic and directive. Therapy is a process or reeducation.
Goals of Therapy:
To eliminate clients’ self-defeating outlook of life and assist them in acquiring a more tolerant and rational view of life. To help them apply the scientific method in solving their emotional and behavioral problems for the rest of their lives.
Techniques of Therapy:
RET therapist use a variety of cognitive, affective, and behavioral techniques; diverse techniques are tailored to suit individual client. Cognitive methods include disputing irrational beliefs, carrying out cognitive homework and changing one’s language and thinking patterns. Emotive techniques include role-playing, imagery, and shame attacking exercises. A wide range of active and practical behavioral techniques is used to engage client in doing the hard work required by therapy.

Reality Therapy:
Basic Philosophies:
Based on the assumption that people are ultimately self-determining and in charge of their lives, the approach is both antideterministic and positive. The model describes how people attempt to control the world around them. It teaches them ways to more effectively satisfy their needs.
Goals of Therapy:
To help people become more effective in meeting their needs. To challenge them to evaluate what they are doing and to assess how well this behavior is working for them.
Techniques of Therapy:
An active, directive, and didactic therapy. Various techniques may be used to get clients to evaluate what they're presently doing to see if they are willing to change. If they decide that their present behavior is not effective, they develop a specific plan for change and made a commitment to follow through with their plans. (Dudley, 1996)

John Fontaine and Nancy Hammond

“Beginning counselors typically experience difficulty in transitioning from classroom-based counseling skills and theory training to their initial clinical experiences(It is difficult) to bridge (the) conceptual into the practical” (Fontaine & Hammond, 1994, p. 223). Following are twenty counseling maxims from Fontaine and Hammond to assist you in making that transition. It is highly recommend that you read this article. It provides additional insight into each area.


1. Trust yourself. Your reactions are a reflection of how others experience the client. Use that information.
2. It is not necessary for you to protect clients – they are not as fragile as you may believe.
3. Don’t worry about whether your client likes you.
4. Take the risk of trying something new. Go outside your comfort zone.
5. It is not your responsibility to solve the client’s problems
6. Be open to all sources of information, and actively challenge your own impressions.
7. Compare. Use your frame of reference of what is “normal” to assess your client’s behavior.
8. Always have your client’s interests at heart. Ask yourself whose needs would be met if you said or did thus and so.
9. Carefully self-monitor your responses to the client, particularly the strong emotional responses you might have in either direction.


10. Behavior speaks more loudly than words.
11. It’s okay if your client is uncomfortable at times.
12. Don’t let a client hide behind other people. Have them talk about themselves and their reactions.
13. What’s good for one client may not be good for another, even if they share the same issue.
14. General statements about relationships and former counselors usually imply something about the client’s relationship with you.


15. Many times clients are aware of their issues and avoid talking about them. Don’t collude in this with your client.
16. When discussing events of interests in therapy, remember three C’s: Be concrete in getting specific details about the events, ask about the context of the event and look for conceptual themes in the client’s stories about his or her life.
17. Attend to the structural aspects of the counseling process. This can be summarized by the concepts of timing, windows, and bridges.

Timing: When you share an insight is just as important as what it is. An astute observation offered at the wrong time is likely to be disregarded by the client; it may even be viewed as insensitive. In contrast, a simple but well-timed remark may increase the client’s sense of trust and connection with you.

Windows: Look for topic openings where you can attend to issues that need to be addressed. Wait for your window of opportunity to introduce a topic of concern to you. It will come if you remain alert to your chances.

Bridges: Connect things that have been said to current topics by building bridges from the past to the present, or vice versa. Look for bridges among current life experiences and between current experiences and past life events.

18. Constantly ask yourself why. Why does this issue arise now? Why in this fashion? Why am I following up on this topic and not another?
19. Share your perceptions of and insights about your client’s behavior with him/her. This information is valuable feedback.
20. You do not have to address every issue of discrepancy you see – but do not lose it either. File it for use later.



1. Materials to bring each week:
a. Your cassette tape. It is a good idea to bring a back up in case one does not work.
b. Supplies you may need during your appointment. Example: assessment tests, reference books, etc.
c. Be sure to have requested any assessment or reference material you will need for the session the prior week. Do not wait till the day of your appointment to request or review assessments.
2. Set up your room:
a. Be sure you have the clock facing you or have a watch on. Remember you must end your session at 10 minutes till the hour.
b. Move microphone away from the clock or fan. If it is near one of these objects, individuals observing cannot hear your session.
c. Set chairs in the position you would like them to be. You must be facing the mirror.
d. Set up a table if you are going to be testing, having the client write or review reference material.
e. Be sure the window shade is up.
3. Set up and test your tape:
a. Be sure your tape is rewound to the end.
b. Check to be sure tape is recording.
4. Do not wait in the office for your client to arrive. Please wait in your assigned room. You will be notified by the CCDS staff when your client arrives.


What you need to tell the client at the beginning of the session:
a. Thank client for coming in and welcome him/her to the CCDS. Let the client know you are ready to address his/her issues, but need to get some paperwork out of the way first.
Give client the Client Release Form (fill in your name, etc before) and let the client read it. Do not go into any additional explanation unless requested by client. Once the client has signed this, excuse yourself and turn on your tape.

Remember, most clients know that our counselors are advanced graduate students. If the client asks for clarification about taping and observation, you can briefly explain how the Practicum is structured and that the Practicum Supervisor and possible fellow counselors in this class may observe. Emphasize how confidentiality is respected within this small group. If there is still a question about the audio/video taping, again emphasize confidentially and explain that this is needed to help you learn by reviewing your tape. Let them know that the tapes are erased immediately and no names are located on them.

b. After the client signs the release, excuse yourself and go to turn on your tape.

c. When you return to the client, explain that you have some general questions you need to ask. Quickly get the information required for the Assessment and Treatment Plan form during your first session.

d. Once you have gotten this information, ask the client why he/she is there or what would he/she like to work on this semester, not what you can do for him/her.


a. Building rapport with client
b. Have informed consent signed
c. Gather information for Assessment and Treatment Form
d. Clarify presenting problem


a) Maintain good eye contact (giving consideration for multicultural issues)
b) Remember your body positioning (best: 85% trunkline leaning upper torso forward toward the client).
c) Give unconditional positive regard
d) Stay attentive using basic listening skills (See Attachment E: Basic Listening Skills)
e) Be prepared for session
f) Structure the information being presented
g) Non-verbal attending
h) Reflect to the client what you are hearing and sensing from him/her
i) Use open-end questions
j) Remember silence is also a tool


a) Establish whether she/he will be returning the following week.
b) Be sure you have the background information you need to complete
Assessment and Treatment Plan form.
c) Emphasize to your clients that if they cannot keep their scheduled appointments, to call the CCDS.
d) Ask client if he/she has any questions, clarify the next steps to be taken in the counseling process. If appropriate, consider giving the client a homework assignment to complete prior to your next session.
e) Review next appointment time and day.


a. Inform the group about your session with client.
b. Report what you observed to be the presenting problem.
c. Report on what your goals and objectives are with client.
d. Ask for feedback from your professor and fellow students.
e. Be open to information and suggestions.


It is important that if you are going to be administering assessment tests that you prepare. Because there is limited time, it is best to start your assessment testing as soon as possible and, if possible, give the assessment to the client to take home and complete, thus, not taking up valuable counseling time. Most of the tests you will be administering can be sent home with the client.

IN SESSION: If you are going to test in session, be prepared with the following: Testing materials, knowledge of how the test is administered, appropriate writing instruments, a table for client to write on, and knowledge of how long the test will take.

OUT OF SESSION: If you are going to give the client the assessment to take home, clearly explain the instructions for taking the assessment. Do not wait until this time to read how to administer the assessment. Do not introduce assessment until the end of the session. If you introduce the assessment early in the session, clients tend to want to focus on the assessment.

RESULTS: A copy of all assessment results must be in client's file.

An excellent resource for learning about career assessment testing is a book published by the National Career Development Association (pp. 1–888-326-1750), A Counselor's Guide to Career Assessment Instruments - 3rd addition (Kapes, Moran-Mastie & Whitfield, 1994). This book, first published in 1982 and every six years since, contains reviews of the most prominent career assessment instruments as well as brief descriptions of most other commercially available assessments.

If your client is interested in exploring occupations, then assessment testing may be a part of this process. The assessment process is designed to measure several different areas depending upon what you and your client are interesting in discovering. The following is a list of the available career exploration assessments available through the CCDS. As you administer these assessments it would be wise to inform the examinee that this is not a test but an instrument to reflect the degree of like or dislike of activities.

The COPSystem Career Measurement includes the COPS (Career Occupational Preference System) Interest Inventory, the CAPS (Career Ability Placement Survey) Ability Battery and the COPES (Career Orientation Placement and Evaluation Survey) Values Survey. The Educational and Industrial Testing Service (EDITS) produces these materials to be administered and interpreted either alone or in coordination with one or more of the other instruments for career exploration, decision-making and planning. All three of the instruments can be either self-scored or machine-scored.

The occupational clusters system used in the COPSystem reflects the structure of occupations in which occupations are classified in terms of groups and levels. Classification by group is based on focusing on activities represented in the COPSystem by eight groups: Science, Technology, Outdoor, Business, Clerical, Communication, Art, and Service. It is advised that the top three areas (codes) scored by client should be explored as possible occupational areas.

COPS: Career Occupational Preference System - Interest Inventory
The COPS contains 168 activities that are performed in a wide variety of occupations. Twelve of these job activity items are included for each of 14 career clusters. Examinees identify whether they like or dislike each job activity: like very much to dislike very much. Results of the COPS identify career cluster of the highest interest to the client. It is based on an occupational cluster system in which all occupations are grouped into fourteen clusters of highly similar occupations.

CAPS: Career Ability Placement System - Abilities
The CAPS was developed to meet the need for a brief measure of abilities related to occupations. The CAPS is comprised of eight five-minute ability tests. The tests are Mechanical Reasoning; Spatial Relations; Verbal Reasoning; Numerical Ability; Language Usage; Word Knowledge; Perceptual Speed and Accuracy; and Manual Speed and Dexterity.

COPES: Career Orientation Placement and Evaluation Survey
COPES measures personal values to assist individuals with their career development through increased self-awareness. Effective career development programs are based on the premise of increasing one's self -awareness as it relates to the type of work they choose. With the increased idea of career choice in society, an individual's personality characteristics come into play. These characteristics have been described as work values, work needs or work satisfactions. The COPES measures eight dimensions of work values..

It is specifically designed to be used with the COPSystem to add the value characteristics of personality into the career decision-making process. This enables an individual to encompass interests, abilities and work values in the career development process.

The COPES has eight values scales. Each is measured by two-choice, paired-comparison items. Each item has a two-choice, paired comparison format. This format's advantage is eliminating or reducing the effects of a number of test biases. The tendency to say "yes" is eliminated, since both stems of the continuum can be written in a socially acceptable manner. This minimizes the tendency to give the most socially desirable response.

The COPSystem was designed to measure interest (COPS), abilities (CAPS), and work values (COPES) in a time efficient manner. These tests can be used independently of each other and combined with career instruments from other sources. Ideally, all three will be used together as part of the assessment phase in a career guidance program.

The COPSystem has detailed information for each of the 14 occupational clusters including occupations to explore; related courses of study; skills and abilities needed in these jobs and more. The occupations are referenced so an individual can easily obtain information from the DOT (Dictionary of Occupational Titles) and the OOH (Occupational Outlook Handbook).

The purpose of the SII is to assist individuals in making career decisions. Sections on the inventory are occupations, school subjects, activities, leisure activities, types of people, preference between activities, and individual characteristics.

The strong postulates that an individual who has interests similar to those of persons working in a given occupation is more likely to find satisfaction in that particular occupation than is a person who does not have common interests with those workers. Utilizing Holland’s personality theory, the SII is scored and interpreted with relation to the six personality types: enterprising, conventional, realistic, social, investigative and artistic.

The purpose of this instrument is to measure the interest of an individual in occupations and preferred work environments. It can be used as an aide in making educational and occupational choices. It is primarily used as an aide in making long range choices about careers.

TRUE COLORS: Career/Personality
True Colors is based on the belief that we have intrinsic characteristics, which drive our human behavior through which we strive to experience self-esteem. As a result, we are imprinted with specific ways of thinking, understanding, valuing and conceptualizing. Thus, our behavior manifests certain attitudes, preferences, wants, aims, needs, motives, and desires that make us feel good about ourselves. These predispositions drive our actions and habits, making our behavior predictable in all contexts of our lives. The colors themselves do not have meaning, but do reflect different temperament types, such as the ones from David Keirsey.
This assessment can be used for occupational research and counseling.

SELF-DIRECTED SEARCH (SDS) – Interest Inventory
Self-administered tests that assist clients in finding the occupations that best suit their interests and abilities. It is scored on each of the six components in Holland’s RIASEC theory: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional. The top three raw scores determine respondents' Holland codes.

This test is scored by hand and consists of two booklets: an assessment booklet and an occupational classification booklet. Following completion of the assessment, the scores are then tabulated giving a three-letter occupational code. This code is then used to locate suitable occupations in the occupational classification booklet.
The purpose of the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator is to make the theory of personality types described by C. G. Jung understandable and useful in people’s lives. It is based on the idea that much seemingly random variation in behavior is actually quite orderly and consistent. This is due to the basic differences in the way individuals prefer to use their perception and judgement.
Perception: all the ways of becoming aware of people, things happening or ideas.
Judgment: all the ways of coming to conclusions about what has been perceived.
This assessment can be used for career counseling to assist in guiding individuals in their choice of school, major, profession and work setting; to consider how a given career might relate to preferred modes of perception and judgment. It can also be used in general counseling by assisting individuals in finding direction for their lives by understanding the strengths and gifts of their preferences; to help individuals cope with problems by using their powers of perception and judgment.

COMPUTER RELATED CAREER SEARCH (These are not available through the CCDS. Check with the Local Community Colleges or at the CSUS Career Center. There may be a fee for non-students).

EUREKA: A computerized library of career and labor markets information. It includes descriptions, ways to prepare, programs of study recommended information about schools, financial aide and a bibliography of more information. It includes information on approximately 450 occupations in California and about 1800 different scholarships.

DISCOVER: A computerized guidance system, which helps combine interests, abilities, experiences and values for making a career decision. It includes a career journal, learning about the world of work, self-assessment, finding jobs and job descriptions. It includes educational decisions, next steps for financial aide or job seeking skills, planning next steps and making transitions. It has information on approximately 500 occupations.

MICRO SKILLS: Helps select skills a person would enjoy using to transfer to careers he/she may also enjoy. It looks for occupations that use these skills ranked: Very Satisfying, Moderately satisfying, and somewhat satisfying. It is part of the Eureka system so, 450 different occupations are in the skills analyses. It selects occupations based only on the 72 skills.

KEIRSEY: A computerized analysis of personality in terms of temperaments and character types. It includes personality characteristics, career strengths, weaknesses, interpersonal relationships, mate selection, appreciating, courting and sexual styles.

CHOICES: A computerized program that covers career, educational and financial aide information. It has sections labeled Explore, Specific, Compare, Related and Job Bank as “routes” to career information. The Explore section asks you to pick topics such as interest, Holland codes, aptitudes, temperaments, educational level, working conditions, job outlook, earnings, hours, physical demands and physical activities. This is a process of elimination. When the system reaches 25 or fewer occupations it automatically lists them.


Step 1: Client and counselor gather information about client's values, interests, aptitudes, abilities, personality, and desired life style. Client develops an awareness between self and occupational choice. The counselor utilizes assessment testing and client interviewing to narrow occupational choices.
Transferable skill identification
Lifestyle choice
Identify possible barriers – Disability considerations, criminal records, etc.
Client's attitudes and influences on traditional employment

Step 2: Client begins investigating occupational choices in greater depth, narrowing a general occupation through career exploration (See Attachment F: Occupational Resources) or Informational Interviews.
Occupational Exploration:
Training/educational requirements
Labor market trends
Career path/options
Aptitude requirements
Skills required for the occupation
Identify accommodations for disabilities in occupational areas

Step 3: Evaluation of occupational choice and gaining practical experience through employment, internships, volunteering, on the job training, or pursuing educational or vocational training goals.
Identifying short term goals
Identifying long term goals
Identifying rewards
Anchoring decisions
Researching financial resources
Researching possible employers, educational institutions or training facilities.

Step 4: Counselor and client develop a plan for meeting occupational goals. Client prepares for and begins conducting a job search or applying to school or training.

Client: ______________


Date: _________________ Counselor: _______________________________________

1. After reviewing your tape, what would you have done or said differently? Give some examples?

2. Give some examples of positive statements you heard yourself say.

3. What issues/problems did the client present?


4. What techniques or plan of action do you intend to utilize to resolve these issues/problems?

5. What are your goals with this client for your next session?

6. What outside research did you do related to your client’s issues/problems?


7. List any questions or concerns you need assistance with.




1. Effectiveness of the introductory phase of the session
Establishment of rapport
Client's body language
Counselor's body language
Client's response/issues

2. Goal setting
Counselor’s explanation of purpose
Transition from prior session
Elicitation of client's expectations/ active involvement
Guiding client in goal setting
Counselor staying on track with client

3. Dealing with client's issues
Was the counselor’s responses appropriate to the issue
Was the counselor on track with presenting problem/underlining issue
Resolution of issues
Did the counselor ask clarifying or leading questions

4. Hidden agenda
Counselor awareness
Emotional cues from client recognized/not recognized by counselor Counselor response to client

5. Conclusion of session
Review & summary of sessions
Assignments given to client
Client recognition & acceptance of assignments. Counselor’s response

6. Overall
Was there any slang, ummms or inappropriate pauses used by the counselor?
Did the counselor present thoughts clearly and concisely to client?
Did the counselor stay on track with the client?
Was the counselor prepared for the session, i.e., books, materials, room set up?
Did the counselor utilize assessments correctly?



3:45 - 4:00 Set up recorder/room/assessments
4:00 - 4:40 Session with client or observation of session
4:40 - 4:50 Session wrap up/assignments given
4:50 - 5:00 Set up for next appointment
5:00 - 5:40 Session with client or observation of session
5:40 - 5:50 Session wrap up/assignments given
5:50 - 6:00 Clean up room for next counselor
6:00 - 6:15 Break/Documentation (Assessment & Treatment form/weekly plans)
6:15 - 8:00 Session Processing



Briefly state your current theoretical base. Be prepared to discuss this in class.





• Focus on speaker's ideas/message with alertness and energy.
• Avoid tuning in and out (slipping into day dreams or unrelated thoughts).
• Avoid selective/wishful hearing (picking out what you want to hear).


• Let speaker know you are listening.
• Ask questions that let speaker know what is not clear.
• State what is understood and asking for confirmation.


• Relate ideas to what you already know.
• Review speaker's ideas.


• Summarize message.
• Summarize agreements.


• Avoid value judgments that interfere with listening.
• Allow for differences of opinion without discounting/devaluing the speaker.
• Be attentive to body Language/Non Verbal Messages.
• Notice and address statements/Body language of client.
Ex: What is being said vs. what body language is saying. Addressing comments or issues that are said or seem to be underlining for client.



How much will client earn? Wages, Hours, & Benefits
Occupational Outlook Handbook
California Occupational Guides

What will client be doing on a daily basis? Occupational Descriptions
Occupational Outlook Handbook
Dictionary of Occupational Titles
Guide to Occupational Exploration
California Occupational Guides

Will client be able to do it, like it, and will it be interesting? Occupational Characteristics
Occupational Outlook Handbook
Dictionary of Occupational Titles
Guide to Occupational Exploration
California Occupational Guides

Where will client work? Industries
Occupational Outlook Handbook
Dictionary of Occupational Titles
Guide to Occupational Exploration
California Occupational Guides
Projections of Employment
Annual Planning Information
Chamber of Commerce Industries in the area

Will this be a good job for the client? Trends and Outlook
Occupational Outlook Handbook
Guide to Occupational Exploration
California Occupational Guides
Labor market information Employment Development Department
Occupation Outlook Handbook – Sacramento and Yolo County

How does the client prepare? Qualifications for Job Entry/ Education & Training
Occupational Outlook Handbook
Occupational Outlook Handbook - Sacramento & Yolo County

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Last modified: Monday, 18 December 2006, 12:54 PM