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Carl Rogers (1902-1987) is a humanistic psychologist, and is best known for his contribution of client centered therapy. He has also contributed to the fields of counseling, psychotherapy, education, and conflict resolution. Rogers studied clinical and educational psychology and was influenced by Otto Rank and John Dewey. His research and work in psychology focused on open communication and the individual as a whole. Client centered therapy was based on Rogers' belief that the client had the innate ability for self-understanding and that counselors needed to create appropriate environments that facilitate growth. Carl Rogers has traveled the world, applying his theories in different places. He has received many awards and degrees because of his work.

Rogers' foundational piece "The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality Change" established the basis for Person-Centered therapy, as well as influencing some of the concepts for future therapies. The 6 conditions which are necessary and sufficient for therapeutic change, which Rogers describes, are as follows:

1. Two persons are in psychological contact.
2. The first, whom we shall term the client, is in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious.
3. The second person, whom we shall term the therapist, is congruent or integrated in the relationship.
4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard for the client.
5. The therapist experiences an empathic understanding of the client's internal frame of reference and endeavors to communicate this experience to the client.
6. The communication to the client of the therapist's empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard is to a minimal degree achieved.(Rogers, C. R., 2007)
Carl Rogers argued that if these conditions were met that constructive change would occur given enough time.


Rogers, C. R. (2007). The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality Change. Reprinted in Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 44(3), 240-248. doi: 10.1037/0033-3204.44.3.240

Rogers, N. Carl Rogers Biography. Retrieved from

Smith, M.K. (1997, 2004). 'Carl Rogers and informal education,' the encyclopedia of informal education. Last update: September 03, 2009.